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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 479587, 12 pages
Research Article

The Production of Nitric Oxide, IL-6, and TNF-Alpha in Palmitate-Stimulated PBMNCs Is Enhanced through Hyperglycemia in Diabetes

1Núcleo de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa (NPGP), Hospital Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Domingos Vieira 590, Santa Efigênia, 30150-240 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte (UniBH), Professor Mário Werneck, 1685 Estoril, 30455-610 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 23 January 2014; Accepted 1 March 2014; Published 6 April 2014

Academic Editor: Daniela Giustarini

Copyright © 2014 Caroline Maria Oliveira Volpe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We examined nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF- secretion from cultured palmitate-stimulated PBMNCs or in the plasma from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2MD) patients or nondiabetic (ND) controls. Free fatty acids (FFA) have been suggested to induce chronic low-grade inflammation, activate the innate immune system, and cause deleterious effects on vascular cells and other tissues through inflammatory processes. The levels of NO, IL-6, TNF-, and MDA were higher in supernatant of palmitate stimulated blood cells (PBMNC) or from plasma from patients. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that hyperglycemia in diabetes exacerbates in vitro inflammatory responses in PBMNCs stimulated with high levels of SFA (palmitate). These results suggest that hyperglycemia primes PBMNCs for NO, IL-6, and TNF-alpha secretion under in vitro FFA stimulation are associated with the secretion of inflammatory biomarkers in diabetes. A combined therapy targeting signaling pathways activated by hyperglycemia in conjunction with simultaneous control of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia would be suggested for controlling the progress of diabetic complications.