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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 590808, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/590808
Review Article

Thioredoxin System Regulation in the Central Nervous System: Experimental Models and Clinical Evidence

1Laboratorio Experimental de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, 14269 México City, DF, Mexico
2Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México City, DF, Mexico
3Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México City, DF, Mexico

Received 11 October 2013; Revised 21 January 2014; Accepted 23 January 2014; Published 27 February 2014

Academic Editor: Sathyasaikumar V. Korrapati

Copyright © 2014 Daniela Silva-Adaya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The reactive oxygen species produced continuously during oxidative metabolism are generated at very high rates in the brain. Therefore, defending against oxidative stress is an essential task within the brain. An important cellular system against oxidative stress is the thioredoxin system (TS). TS is composed of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NADPH. This review focuses on the evidence gathered in recent investigations into the central nervous system, specifically the different brain regions in which the TS is expressed. Furthermore, we address the conditions that modulate the thioredoxin system in both, animal models and the postmortem brains of human patients associated with the most common neurodegenerative disorders, in which the thioredoxin system could play an important part.