Subanesthetic Isoflurane Reduces Zymosan-Induced Inflammation in Murine Kupffer Cells by Inhibiting ROS-Activated p38 MAPK/NF-κB Signaling
0.7% ISO reduces ZY-induced COX2/PGE2 upregulation and cytokine and chemokine production in vitro. At 0.5 h after ZY or CM (Ctrl) treatment, the KCs (1 × 106 cells/well in six-well culture plates) were exposed to RA with or without 0.7% ISO for 0.5 h. The cells were continuously stimulated with ZY (0.5 mg/mL) or Ctrl for 6 or 24 h. (a) Western blot was performed to detect the expression of COX2. β-Actin was used as the internal control. The ratio form COX2 to β-actin is indicated above the bands. (b) RIA was performed to assess PGE2 production. ((c)–(i)) ELISA was used to determine the levels of TNF-α (c), IL-1β (d), IL-6 (e), HMGB-1 (f), MIP-1α (g), MIP-2 (h), and MCP-1 (i) in the culture supernatants. Representative data are from three independent experiments and expressed as mean ± SD. versus Ctrl + RA or Ctrl + ISO; versus ZY + RA. “Time” in the figure represents the time periods of Ctrl or ZY treatment. ZY: zymosan; ISO: isoflurane; Ctrl: control; RA: room air.