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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 901315, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/901315
Research Article

Toona sinensis Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation and Migration in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species and NF-B Signaling Pathway

1Institute of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
2Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
3Department of Cosmeceutics, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
4Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
5School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
6Department of Food Science and Technology, Ta-Jen University, Ping-Tung County, Taiwan
7Department of Medico Pharmaceutical Science, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Komuro, Inamachi, Kita-Adachigun,Saitama, Japan

Received 22 October 2013; Revised 15 January 2014; Accepted 23 January 2014; Published 4 March 2014

Academic Editor: Guillermo Zalba

Copyright © 2014 Hsin-Ling Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Toona sinensis is one of the most popular vegetarian cuisines in Taiwan and it has been shown to possess antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic potential of aqueous leaf extracts from Toona sinensis (TS; 25–100 g/mL) and its major bioactive compound, gallic acid (GA; 5 g/mL), in LPS-treated rat aortic smooth muscle (A7r5) cells. We found that pretreatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of TS and GA significantly inhibited inflammatory NO and production by downregulating their precursors, iNOS and COX-2, respectively, in LPS-treated A7r5 cells. Furthermore, TS and GA inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS and their corresponding mediator, p4. Notably, TS and GA pretreatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced migration in transwell assays. Gelatin zymography and western blotting demonstrated that treatment with TS and GA suppressed the activity or expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and t-PA. Additionally, TS and GA significantly inhibited LPS-induced VEGF, PDGF, and VCAM-1 expression. Further investigation revealed that the inhibition of iNOS/COX-2, MMPs, growth factors, and adhesion molecules was associated with the suppression of NF-κB activation and MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38) phosphorylation. Thus, Toona sinensis may be useful for the prevention of atherosclerosis.