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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 908539, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/908539
Review Article

Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Pathologies: From an Adipocentric Point of View

1INSERM UMR 1063, “Stress Oxydant et Pathologies Métaboliques”, Institut de Biologie en Santé, 4 rue Larrey, 49933 Angers, France
2Department of Biochemistry, Université d’Angers, CHU Angers, 4 rue Larrey, 49933 Angers Cedex 9, France

Received 12 February 2014; Revised 20 May 2014; Accepted 26 June 2014; Published 20 July 2014

Academic Editor: Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar

Copyright © 2014 Soazig Le Lay et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a pathological role in the development of various diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, or cancer. Systemic oxidative stress results from an imbalance between oxidants derivatives production and antioxidants defenses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generally considered to be detrimental for health. However, evidences have been provided that they can act as second messengers in adaptative responses to stress. Obesity represents a major risk factor for deleterious associated pathologies such as type 2 diabetes, liver, and coronary heart diseases. Many evidences regarding obesity-induced oxidative stress accumulated over the past few years based on established correlations of biomarkers or end-products of free-radical-mediated oxidative stress with body mass index. The hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin-resistance state, is supported by several studies where treatments reducing ROS production reverse metabolic alterations, notably through improvement of insulin sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, or hepatic steatosis. In this review, we will develop the mechanistic links between oxidative stress generated by adipose tissue in the context of obesity and its impact on metabolic complications development. We will also attempt to discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting obesity-associated oxidative stress in order to prevent associated-metabolic complications.