Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 186908, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/186908
Review Article

Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

1Medical College of Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China
2Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Disorders, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China

Received 17 October 2014; Revised 10 December 2014; Accepted 10 December 2014

Academic Editor: Guangdong Yang

Copyright © 2015 Dongdong Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the major causes of high morbidity, disability, and mortality in the world. I/R injury remains a complicated and unresolved situation in clinical practice, especially in the field of solid organ transplantation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gaseous signaling molecule and plays a broad range of physiological and pathophysiological roles in mammals. H2S could protect against I/R injury in many organs and tissues, such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, intestine, stomach, hind-limb, lung, and retina. The goal of this review is to highlight recent findings regarding the role of H2S in I/R injury. In this review, we present the production and metabolism of H2S and further discuss the effect and mechanism of H2S in I/R injury.

1. Introduction

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a well-recognized pathological condition that is characterized by an initial deprivation of blood supply to an area or organ followed by subsequent vascular restoration and concomitant reoxygenation of downstream tissue [1]. I/R can develop as a consequence of trauma, hypertension, shock, sepsis, organ transplantation, or bypass surgery leading to end-organ failure such as acute renal tubular necrosis, bowel infarct, and liver failure. I/R can also occur under various complications of vascular diseases such as stroke and myocardial infarction [1, 2]. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed as mediators of the damage induced by I/R, such as activation of the complement system and leukocyte recruitment, endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium overload, reduction of oxidative phosphorylation, increased free radical concentration, development of the no-reflow phenomenon, endothelial dysfunction, and activation of signaling pathways of apoptosis, necrosis, and/or autophagy [1, 3]. Many studies have shown that there are three time frames in the protection against I/R injury: before the index ischemic episode (ischemic preconditioning), during ischemia (ischemic conditioning), and at the onset of reperfusion (ischemic postconditioning) [4, 5]. Currently, several therapeutic gases have been shown to play a role in the treatment of I/R injury, including hydrogen, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) [6].

H2S is a colorless, flammable, and water-soluble gas with the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. In the past several centuries, H2S had been known only for its toxicity and environmental hazards [7, 8]. It elicits its toxic effects by reversibly inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), preventing oxidative phosphorylation and lowering the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Recently, there has been growing evidence that H2S plays a broad range of physiological and pathophysiological functions [9, 10], including induction of angiogenesis [11], regulation of neuronal activity [9], vascular relaxation [12], glucose homeostatic regulation [13], and protection against I/R injury in heart, liver, kidney, lung, and brain [1418]. The abnormal metabolism of H2S could result in an array of pathological disturbances in the form of hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, heart failure, sepsis, inflammation, erectile dysfunction, cataracts, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases [10]. In addition, H2S can also interact with other specific molecules, including NO [19], CcO [20], catalase [21], myoglobin [21, 22], hemoglobin [21, 22], Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) [23], cysteine residues on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels [24], epidermal growth factor receptor [25], and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 [25, 26]. Considering H2S is involved in numerous biological processes, it is now widely accepted that H2S functions as the third signaling gasotransmitter, along with NO and CO [9].

With the deepening of research on H2S and I/R injury, the role that H2S plays in attenuating I/R injury has begun to be elucidated. In this review, we highlight recent studies that provide new insight into the production and metabolism of H2S and discuss the role and mechanism of H2S on I/R injury.

2. Production and Metabolism of H2S

2.1. Endogenous Production of H2S

H2S is endogenously generated in mammalian cells via both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways, although the nonenzymatic pathway is less important in H2S production [27]. With regard to the enzymatic pathway, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) are two pyridoxal-5′-phosphate- (PLP-) dependent enzymes, which use either L-cysteine or L-cysteine together with homocysteine as their principal substrates to produce H2S [9]. Unlike CBS and CSE, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is a PLP-independent enzyme, which uses 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP) as a substrate to produce H2S. 3MP is a metabolite of L-cysteine and α-ketoglutarate by cysteine aminotransferase (CAT) [9]. CSE and CBS are cytosolic enzymes with tissue-specific distributions. CBS is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system and is also found in liver, kidney, ileum, uterus, placenta, and pancreatic islets. CSE is abundant in heart, liver, kidney, uterus, ileum, placenta, and vascular smooth muscle. CSE is the most relevant H2S-producing enzyme in the cardiovascular system [9, 27]. CAT and 3-MST are localized both in cytosol and mitochondria, but the majority of these two enzymes are present in the mitochondria [9]. They have been found in the heart, kidney, liver, lung, thymus, testis, brain, and thoracic aorta and are apparently important for H2S production in the brain and vasculature [9, 27, 28]. Furthermore, a recent study has demonstrated that D-cysteine (a negative control of L-cysteine) can be metabolized to achiral 3MP by D-amino acid oxidase and can be used as a substrate for 3-MST to produce H2S in both kidney and brain [29]. During the enzymatic pathway, H2S can be immediately released or stored in a form of bound or acid-labile sulfur in the cells [30].

Apart from enzymatic pathway, endogenous H2S can also be produced through nonenzymatic processes that are less well understood [27, 30, 31]. Nonenzymatic production of H2S occurs through glucose, inorganic, and organic polysulfides (present in garlic), glutathione, and elemental sulfur [30, 31]. H2S can be generated from glucose either via glycolysis (>90%) or from phosphogluconate via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (<10%) [7, 27, 30]. Glucose could react with cysteine, methionine, or homocysteine to produce gaseous sulfur compounds such as H2S and methanethiol [7, 8, 30]. H2S is also produced through direct reduction of glutathione and elemental sulfur. Reduction of elemental sulfur to H2S is mediated through reducing equivalents of the glucose oxidation pathways such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and NADPH [7, 8]. Thiosulfate is an intermediate of sulfur metabolism from cysteine and H2S formation from thiosulfate through a reductive reaction involving pyruvate, which acts as a hydrogen donor [7, 8, 32, 33]. In addition, garlic and garlic-derived organic polysulfides could induce H2S production in a thiol-dependent manner, such as diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), and S-allyl cysteine (SAC) [3034].

2.2. Exogenous Source of H2S

H2S gas has been considered as the authentic resource of exogenous H2S [35]. Recent studies have shown that H2S gas plays important roles in promoting angiogenesis [11], ameliorating type II diabetes [13], and protecting against myocardial I/R injury [36]. However, H2S gas is not an ideal resource due to a possible toxic impact of H2S excess and difficulty in obtaining precisely controlled concentration [35]. Currently, a number of H2S-releasing compounds have already been successfully designed and developed. These compounds could be mainly divided into two types, including the “H2S donors,” which release H2S as the only mechanism of action, and the “H2S-releasing hybrid drugs,” also known as “dirty drugs” in which H2S release is an ancillary property which accompanies a principal mechanism of the hybrid drugs [35]. Inorganic sulfide salts, such as sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), sodium sulfide (Na2S), and calcium sulfide, have been widely used as H2S donors [7, 8, 35]. As the maximum concentration of H2S released from these salts can be reached within seconds, they have been called fast-releasing H2S donors [35]. However, the effective residence time of these donors in tissues may be very short because H2S is highly volatile in solutions [35]. Ideal H2S donors for therapeutic purposes should generate H2S with relatively slow-releasing rates and longer periods of treating time. Recently, many slow-releasing H2S donors (Table 1) and H2S-releasing hybrid drugs (Table 2) have been designed and synthesized to increase the treatment efficacy of H2S.

Table 1: The biological characteristics of slow-releasing H2S donors.
Table 2: The biological characteristics of H2S-releasing hybrid drugs.

2.3. Metabolism of H2S

In order to maintain a proper physiological balance of its metabolism, H2S can be broken down through several enzymatic and nonenzymatic processes [7, 10, 37]. The main pathway of H2S catabolism occurs in mitochondria. Mitochondrial oxidative modification converts H2S into thiosulfate through several enzymes including quinone oxidoreductase, S-dioxygenase, and S-transferase. Thiosulfate could be further converted into sulfite, which is catalyzed by thiosulfate : cyanide sulfurtransferase. Sulfite is then rapidly oxidized to sulfate by sulfite oxidase. Therefore, sulfate is a major end-product of H2S metabolism under physiological conditions [7, 10, 37, 38]. The secondary mechanism of H2S catabolism is the methylation to methanethiol and dimethylsulfide via thiol S-methyltransferase in the cytosol [10, 37, 38]. The third pathway of H2S metabolism is the interaction of H2S with methemoglobin that leads to sulfhemoglobin, which is considered as a possible biomarker of plasma H2S [10, 37, 38]. These three pathways are considered the main processes of H2S catabolism in mammals. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that H2S could be converted into sulfite via minor oxidative routes in activated neutrophils [10, 37].

3. H2S and I/R Injury

3.1. H2S and Myocardial I/R Injury

Myocardial ischemia is a common clinical symptom characterized by low pH values, low oxygen, and high extracellular potassium concentration, which may cause arrhythmias, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and sudden death [3, 5, 6]. The damaged myocardial structure and decreased heart function induced by ischemia can be repaired with subsequent reperfusion. The effectiveness of reperfusion depends on the duration and severity of prior ischemia [6, 39]. However, myocardial reperfusion could also activate a complex inflammatory response, which may finally lead to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI), such as arrhythmias, myocardial stunning, microvascular dysfunction, and myocyte death [2, 40]. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective cardioprotective strategies and agents against MIRI to improve myocardial function and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events [4]. H2S is now considered as an endogenous signaling molecule which plays an important role in the cardiovascular system [6, 15, 27]. In the heart, H2S is produced in the fibroblasts, myocardium, and blood vessels from L-cysteine by CSE, CBS, and 3-MST and accumulates at relatively high local concentrations [6, 27, 30]. An accumulating body of evidence indicates that exogenous or endogenous H2S could exert cardioprotection against MIRI in cardiac myocytes, isolated hearts, and intact animals. However, it is currently difficult to define the precise underlying mechanisms for this protection. A summary of what is known about the mechanisms by which H2S and its donors-induced cardioprotection against MIRI is shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Effects of H2S and its donors in myocardial I/R injury.

3.2. H2S and Hepatic I/R Injury

Liver I/R-induced injury represents a continuum of organic processes that could produce profound liver damage and ultimately lead to morbidity and mortality [41, 42]. Hepatic I/R injury has now been considered a worldwide health problem and usually occurs in liver transplantation, hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, trauma, liver resection surgery, and aortic injury during abdominal surgery [4143]. Hepatic I/R injury can be categorized into warm I/R and cold storage reperfusion injury, which share a common mechanism in the disease aetiology [41, 42]. Increasing number of experimental and clinical studies indicate that pathways/factors involved in the hepatic I/R injury include liver Kupffer cells and neutrophils, intracellular calcium overload, oxidative stress, anaerobic metabolism, mitochondria, adhesion molecules, chemokines, and proinflammatory cytokines [41, 42, 44, 45]. Despite significant advances in surgical techniques and perioperative cares, hepatic I/R injury remains one of the major complications in hepatic resection and transplantation [46]. Novel agents/drugs exhibiting antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective activities may be possible candidates for protecting the liver from I/R injury [46]. Recent studies have shown that H2S could significantly attenuate hepatic I/R injury in several ways, including inflammation, apoptosis, oxidation, and AKT activation (Table 4). The results suggest that H2S has a protective effect against hepatic I/R injury, and targeting H2S may present a promising approach against I/R-induced liver injury.

Table 4: Effects of H2S and its donors in hepatic I/R injury.

3.3. H2S and Renal I/R Injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication of critical illness and is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization [25, 47, 48]. Renal I/R injury is one of the leading causes of AKI in many clinical settings [47, 48]. Renal I/R injury often arises from shock and various surgical procedures such as kidney transplantation and resection [4749]. H2S plays important physiological and pathological roles in the kidney [48]. For instance, it participates in the control of renal function and increases urinary sodium excretion via both tubular and vascular actions in the kidney [50]. CSE deficiency in mice could lead to reduced renal H2S production and increase severity of damage and mortality after renal I/R injury, which indicates that H2S may play a role in alleviating renal I/R injury [14]. More recently, there is growing evidence regarding the beneficial effects of H2S on ameliorating renal I/R injury mainly via a variety of antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects (Table 5). These studies indicate that H2S and its donors may be of benefit in conditions associated with renal I/R injury, such as renal transplantation.

Table 5: Effects of H2S and its donors in renal I/R injury.
3.4. H2S and Cerebral I/R Injury

Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common disorders that greatly threaten human health with high morbidity, disability, and mortality [51]. Cerebral I/R injury is mainly characterized by a deterioration of ischemic but potentially salvageable brain tissue of an ischemic injury after reperfusion [52, 53]. There are a number of risk factors involved in cerebral I/R injury, such as excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, formation of free radicals, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), edema, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis [5254]. Emerging evidences indicate that H2S functions not only as a neuromodulator, but also as a neuroprotectant in the central nervous system [18, 5557]. In an in vivo model of cerebral I/R injury, treatment with low concentration of H2S decreased the infarct size and improved the neurological function via antiapoptotic effect, implying that H2S has a therapeutic role in cerebral ischemic stroke [18, 57]. DAS, an H2S donor, could also protect the brain from I/R injury partly via its antiapoptotic effects [58]. ADT, another H2S donor, decreased the infarct size and protected BBB integrity by suppressing local inflammation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4-derived ROS generation [55]. However, it is notable that the effects of H2S on cerebral I/R injury are controversial [56]. Treatment with a higher dose of exogenous H2S donor could deteriorate the effects of cerebral I/R injury [18, 59]. These opposite effects of H2S on cerebral I/R injury may be partially associated with the concentration of H2S in brain. This research offers a novel insight for future studies on the cytoprotective effects of a proper dose of H2S on central nervous system degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

3.5. H2S and Intestinal I/R Injury

Intestinal I/R injury is considered to be a major and frequent problem in many clinical conditions, including intestinal mechanical obstruction, abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, strangulated hernias, liver and intestinal transplantation, mesenteric artery occlusion, shock, and severe trauma [6064]. This injury can lead to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome [62, 63]. Although many advanced treatments have been applied to clinical research, the mortality induced by intestinal I/R injury remains very high [61, 63]. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new therapeutic agents/drugs for the treatment of intestinal I/R injury. Recent studies have shown that H2S has anti-ischemic activity in the intestinal I/R model. NaHS could significantly reduce the severity of intestinal I/R injury and dramatically increase the activities of SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in both serum and intestinal tissue, which suggests that H2S protects against intestinal I/R injury by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes [63]. In addition, administration of NaHS after the onset of ischemia can attenuate I/R-induced damage of intestinal tissues both in vitro and in vivo [65]. These observations provide new insight regarding the potential use of H2S as a therapeutic agent to limit intestinal I/R injury.

3.6. H2S and Gastric I/R Injury

Gastric I/R injury is an important and common clinical problem which could lead to mucosal injury [66]. A number of clinical conditions contribute to gastric I/R injury, including peptic ulcer bleeding, vascular rupture or surgery, ischemia gastrointestinal disease, and hemorrhagic shock [66]. However, there are few satisfactory clinical methods in the treatment of gastric I/R injury [67]. H2S has been found to play an important role in protecting against gastric I/R injury. Endogenous H2S had a protective effect against gastric I/R in rats by enhancing the antioxidant capacity through increasing the contents of GSH and SOD [68]. Another study has shown that NaHS and L-cysteine could protect the gastric mucosa against I/R damage mainly mediated by altering mRNA expression and plasma release of proinflammatory cytokines [69]. Furthermore, NaHS and L-cysteine also showed gastroprotective effects against I/R injury by Keap1 s-sulfhydration, nuclear factor-kappa B dependent anti-inflammation, and mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent antiapoptosis pathway [66]. Thus, H2S and its donors may have potential therapeutic value in acute gastric mucosal lesion, which is often caused by I/R.

3.7. H2S and Hind-Limb I/R Injury

I/R injury can occur in skeletal muscle during elective surgery (i.e., free tissue transfer) and lower extremity arterial occlusion [70, 71]. Limb I/R injury may result in a series of postreperfusion syndromes, such as crush syndrome, compartment syndrome, and myonephropathic-metabolic syndrome [72]. Currently, clinical practice mainly focuses on reducing the duration of ischemia to minimize the ischemic injury in skeletal muscle [70, 71]. Therapeutic interventions that change the biochemical environment during the ischemic and/or reperfusion period may result in amelioration of subsequent cellular damage [71]. Treatment with NaHS for 20 minutes before the onset of hind-limb ischemia or reperfusion could result in significant protection against the cellular damage induced by I/R [71, 73]. However, administration of NaHS for 1 minute before reperfusion did not show any protection against limb I/R Injury [73]. Whether H2S could protect against limb I/R injury in a dose- and time-dependent manner needs further investigation.

3.8. H2S and Lung I/R Injury

Lung I/R injury occurs in various clinical conditions such as lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass, trauma, cardiac bypass surgery, sleeve lobectomy, shock, pulmonary embolism, resuscitation from circulatory arrest, and reexpansion pulmonary edema [16, 7477]. Lung I/R injury is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, worsened lung compliance, poor lung oxygenation, edema, and increased pulmonary endothelial permeability [16, 78]. Currently, there is no effective therapy available for the lung I/R injury. The precise mechanism of lung I/R injury needs to be further elucidated [16, 74]. A recent study has shown that preperfusion with H2S could attenuate the lung I/R injury by reducing lung oxidative stress [16], which suggests that administration of H2S or its donors might be a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy for lung I/R injury.

3.9. H2S and Retinal I/R Injury

Retinal I/R injury is a common clinical condition and is associated with the loss of neurons, morphological degeneration of the retina, loss of retinal function, and ultimately vision loss [79, 80]. Emerging evidence suggests that retinal I/R injury plays an important role in the pathologic processes of several ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, acute glaucoma, and retinal vascular occlusion [81, 82]. Retinal I/R injury often results in visual impairment and blindness because of the lack of effective treatment [81, 83]. One recent study has indicated that rapid preconditioning with inhaled H2S can mediate antiapoptotic effects and thus protect the rat retina against I/R injury [84]. ACS67, a H2S-releasing derivative of latanoprost acid, possesses neuroprotective properties and could attenuate retinal ischemia in vivo and decrease the oxidative insult to RGC-5 cells (retinal ganglion cells) in vitro [85]. These results suggest that H2S represents a novel and promising therapeutic agent to counteract neuronal injuries in the eye [84]. Further studies are needed to prove the neuroprotective propensity of H2S in retinal I/R injury using a postconditioning approach.

4. Concluding Remarks

H2S is now considered as the third signaling gasotransmitter which plays a broad range of physiological and pathophysiological functions, including vascular relaxation, induction of angiogenesis, regulation of neuronal activity, and glucose homeostatic regulation. H2S can be endogenously generated via both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways and mainly metabolized through three pathways in mammals. However, whether H2S could be generated and metabolized via another pathway should be further studied and confirmed. In addition, more efforts should be made to illuminate the expressions and functions of H2S-generating enzymes in different organ and tissue. In order to increase the treatment efficacy of H2S, a number of slow-releasing H2S donors and H2S-releasing hybrid drugs have been successfully designed, synthesized, and proved to be effective in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Novel synthetic strategy should be developed to extend the exposure time of H2S donor. Agents/drugs with antiapoptotic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects could be conjugated with H2S donor to enhance their therapeutic effects. Furthermore, new drug targeting carrier systems should be designed to effectively transport the H2S donor to the targeted organ or tissue.

I/R is a pathological condition that is characterized by an initial deprivation of blood supply to an area or organ followed by the subsequent restoration of perfusion and concomitant reoxygenation. Novel mechanisms associated with I/R need to be further studied and illuminated in addition to the existing pathophysiologic mechanisms. Increasing number of studies have shown that H2S could protect against I/R injury in many organs and tissues, such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, intestine, stomach, hind-limb, lung, and retina. Whether H2S could exert protection against I/R injury in other organs and/or tissues need to be further demonstrated. In addition, the molecular targets of H2S in I/R injury are also needed to be clarified. Ischemic preconditioning, conditioning, and postconditioning are three time frames in the protection against I/R injury. Proper time frame and optimal duration of treatment should be confirmed according to the physicochemical property of H2S-releasing compounds. Considering different doses of H2S-releasing compounds may exert different therapeutic effects, proper dose range should also be further explored to obtain a better therapeutic efficacy. Currently, researches into the molecular mechanisms of H2S in I/R injury using animal experiments have made some progress. Clinical evidence-based research should also be useful in further exploring the little-understood field of the role of H2S in I/R injury. In addition, longer-term studies are required to determine whether H2S treatment permanently improves organ function following I/R injury and whether this effect reduces long-term morbidity and mortality.

In conclusion, with the rapid developments of design and synthetic strategies, as well as better understanding of the precise mechanisms behind the role of H2S in I/R injury, treatment with H2S or its donors in proper dose range and time frame will exhibit more potent therapeutic effects against I/R injury in further preclinical research and clinical application.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interests related to this work.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Grant 132300410012 (Yanzhang Li) from Henan Provincial Science & Technology, China, and National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 81471174 (Mengzhou Xue) and Grant 31300884 (Jun Wang). Drs. Ji, Li, and Xue are Yellow River Scholars in Biology, Biochemistry and Neurology, respectively. The authors apologize to all colleagues whose relevant contributions could not be cited due to space limitations.

References

  1. H. K. Eltzschig and T. Eckle, “Ischemia and reperfusion—from mechanism to translation,” Nature Medicine, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1391–1401, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Duehrkop and R. Rieben, “Ischemia/reperfusion injury: effect of simultaneous inhibition of plasma cascade systems versus specific complement inhibition,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 12–22, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. B. Jennings, “Historical perspective on the pathology of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Circulation Research, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 428–438, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. J. Hausenloy and D. M. Yellon, “The therapeutic potential of ischemic conditioning: an update,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 619–629, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Heusch, P. Libby, B. Gersh et al., “Cardiovascular remodelling in coronary artery disease and heart failure,” The Lancet, vol. 383, no. 9932, pp. 1933–1943, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. Andreadou, E. K. Iliodromitis, T. Rassaf, R. Schulz, A. Papapetropoulos, and P. Ferdinandy, “The role of gasotransmitters NO, H2S and CO in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and cardioprotection by preconditioning, postconditioning and remote conditioning,” British Journal of Pharmacology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. G. K. Kolluru, X. Shen, S. C. Bir, and C. G. Kevil, “Hydrogen sulfide chemical biology: pathophysiological roles and detection,” Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry, vol. 35, pp. 5–20, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Q. Li and J. R. Lancaster Jr., “Chemical foundations of hydrogen sulfide biology,” Nitric Oxide—Biology and Chemistry, vol. 35, pp. 21–34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Kimura, “The physiological role of hydrogen sulfide and beyond,” Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry, vol. 41, pp. 4–10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Stein and S. M. Bailey, “Redox biology of hydrogen sulfide: implications for physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology,” Redox Biology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Papapetropoulos, A. Pyriochoua, Z. Altaany et al., “Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous stimulator of angiogenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 51, pp. 21972–21977, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Yang, L. Wu, B. Jiang et al., “H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine γ-lyase,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5901, pp. 587–590, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Xue, D.-D. Hao, J.-P. Sun et al., “Hydrogen sulfide treatment promotes glucose uptake by increasing insulin receptor sensitivity and ameliorates kidney lesions in type 2 diabetes,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 5–23, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. M. Bos, R. Wang, P. M. Snijder et al., “Cystathionine γ-lyase protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion by modulating oxidative stress,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 759–770, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. W. Calvert, M. Elston, C. K. Nicholson et al., “Genetic and pharmacologic hydrogen sulfide therapy attenuates ischemia-induced heart failure in mice,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Z. Fu, X. Liu, B. Geng, L. Fang, and C. Tang, “Hydrogen sulfide protects rat lung from ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Life Sciences, vol. 82, no. 23-24, pp. 1196–1202, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Wang, Y. Ma, Z. Li et al., “The role of AKT1 and autophagy in the protective effect of hydrogen sulphide against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice,” Autophagy, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 954–962, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Yin, C. Tu, J. Zhao et al., “Exogenous hydrogen sulfide protects against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1491, pp. 188–196, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. L. lo Faro, B. Fox, J. L. Whatmore et al., “Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide interactions in inflammation,” Nitric Oxide, vol. 41, pp. 38–47, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  20. J. P. Collman, S. Ghosh, A. Dey, and R. A. Decréau, “Using a functional enzyme model to understand the chemistry behind hydrogen sulfide induced hibernation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 52, pp. 22090–22095, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. B. Ríos-González, E. M. Román-Morales, R. Pietri, and J. López-Garriga, “Hydrogen sulfide activation in hemeproteins: the sulfheme scenario,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 133, pp. 78–86, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Pietri, E. Román-Morales, and J. López-Garriga, “Hydrogen sulfide and hemeproteins: knowledge and mysteries,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 393–404, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. M. Hourihan, J. G. Kenna, and J. D. Hayes, “The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide induces Nrf2-target genes by inactivating the keap1 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor through formation of a disulfide bond between Cys-226 and Cys-613,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 465–481, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Jiang, G. Tang, K. Cao, L. Wu, and R. Wang, “Molecular mechanism for H2S-induced activation of KATP channels,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1167–1178, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S.-N. Ge, M.-M. Zhao, D.-D. Wu et al., “Hydrogen sulfide targets EGFR Cys797/Cys798 residues to induce Na+/K+-ATPase endocytosis and inhibition in renal tubular epithelial cells and increase sodium excretion in chronic salt-loaded rats,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 21, no. 15, pp. 2061–2082, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. B.-B. Tao, S.-Y. Liu, C.-C. Zhang et al., “VEGFR2 functions as an H2S-targeting receptor protein kinase with its novel Cys1045-Cys1024 disulfide bond serving as a specific molecular switch for hydrogen sulfide actions in vascular endothelial cells,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 448–464, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. J. Polhemus and D. J. Lefer, “Emergence of hydrogen sulfide as an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule in cardiovascular disease,” Circulation Research, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 730–737, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Shibuya, Y. Mikami, Y. Kimura, N. Nagahara, and H. Kimura, “Vascular endothelium expresses 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase and produces hydrogen sulfide,” Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 146, no. 5, pp. 623–626, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Shibuya, S. Koike, M. Tanaka et al., “A novel pathway for the production of hydrogen sulfide from D-cysteine in mammalian cells,” Nature Communications, vol. 4, article 1366, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Kimura, “Production and physiological effects of hydrogen sulfide,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 783–793, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. A. Benavides, G. L. Squadrito, R. W. Mills et al., “Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 46, pp. 17977–17982, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. B. L. Predmore, K. Kondo, S. Bhushan et al., “The polysulfide diallyl trisulfide protects the ischemic myocardium by preservation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide and increasing nitric oxide bioavailability,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 302, no. 11, pp. H2410–H2418, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. M. Snijder, A. S. Frenay, R. A. de Boer et al., “Exogenous administration of thiosulfate, a donor of hydrogen sulfide, attenuates Angiotensin II-induced hypertensive heart disease in rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. T. Imai, Y. Kosuge, K. Endo-Umeda et al., “Protective effect of S-allyl-l-cysteine against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death is mediated by inhibition of calpain,” Amino Acids, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 385–393, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. Zhao, T. D. Biggs, and M. Xian, “Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) releasing agents: chemistry and biological applications,” Chemical Communications (Cambridge), vol. 50, no. 80, pp. 11788–11805, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. P. M. Snijder, R. A. de Boer, E. M. Bos et al., “Gaseous hydrogen sulfide protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice partially independent from hypometabolism,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e63291, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Kabil and R. Banerjee, “Redox biochemistry of hydrogen sulfide,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 285, no. 29, pp. 21903–21907, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. M. Hildebrandt and M. K. Grieshaber, “Three enzymatic activities catalyze the oxidation of sulfide to thiosulfate in mammalian and invertebrate mitochondria,” FEBS Journal, vol. 275, no. 13, pp. 3352–3361, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G.-J. Lee, S. K. Kim, S. W. Kang et al., “Real time measurement of myocardial oxygen dynamics during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion of rats,” Analyst, vol. 137, no. 22, pp. 5312–5319, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Fauconnier, A. C. Meli, J. Thireau et al., “Ryanodine receptor leak mediated by caspase-8 activation leads to left ventricular injury after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 32, pp. 13258–13263, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Nastos, K. Kalimeris, N. Papoutsidakis et al., “Global consequences of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2014, Article ID 906965, 13 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Zhai, H. Petrowsky, J. C. Hong, R. W. Busuttil, and J. W. Kupiec-Weglinski, “Ischaemia-reperfusion injury in liver transplantation—from bench to bedside,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 79–89, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Cure, M. Cumhur Cure, L. Tumkaya et al., “Adalimumab ameliorates abdominal aorta cross clamping which induced liver injury in rats,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 907915, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Elias-Miró, M. B. Jiménez-Castro, J. Rodés, and C. Peralta, “Current knowledge on oxidative stress in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion,” Free Radical Research, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 555–568, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Mukhopadhyay, B. Horváth, Z. Zsengeller et al., “Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation triggers inflammatory response and tissue injury associated with hepatic ischemiareperfusion: therapeutic potential of mitochondrially targeted antioxidants,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1123–1138, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. K. Kang, M. Zhao, H. Jiang, G. Tan, S. Pan, and X. Sun, “Role of hydrogen sulfide in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in rats,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1306–1314, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. M. Chertow, E. Burdick, M. Honour, J. V. Bonventre, and D. W. Bates, “Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 3365–3370, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Song, F. Wang, Q. Li et al., “Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the renal fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy,” Kidney International, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1318–1329, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. I. Mühlberger, P. Perco, R. Fechete, B. Mayer, and R. Oberbauer, “Biomarkers in renal transplantation ischemia reperfusion injury,” Transplantation, vol. 88, no. 3S, pp. S14–S19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Bełtowski, “Hypoxia in the renal medulla: implications for hydrogen sulfide signaling,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 334, no. 2, pp. 358–363, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Han, G. W. He, and Z. W. Chen, “Protective effect and mechanism of total flavones from Rhododendron simsii planch on endothelium-dependent dilatation and hyperpolarization in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and correlation to hydrogen sulphide release in rats,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 904019, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. X.-M. Chen, H.-S. Chen, M.-J. Xu, and J.-G. Shen, “Targeting reactive nitrogen species: a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 67–77, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Pan, A.-A. Konstas, B. Bateman, G. A. Ortolano, and J. Pile-Spellman, “Reperfusion injury following cerebral ischemia: pathophysiology, MR imaging, and potential therapies,” Neuroradiology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 93–102, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Liu, Y. Sun, Z. Gu, N. Shi, T. Zhang, and X. Sun, “Mitophagy in ischaemia/reperfusion induced cerebral injury,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1295–1300, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Wang, J. Jia, G. Ao et al., “Hydrogen sulfide protects blood-brain barrier integrity following cerebral ischemia,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 827–838, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Jang, M. Y. Oh, Y. J. Kim et al., “Hydrogen sulfide treatment induces angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 1520–1528, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. S. Gheibi, N. Aboutaleb, M. Khaksari et al., “Hydrogen sulfide protects the brain against ischemic reperfusion injury in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia,” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 264–270, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. X. Lin, S. Yu, Y. Chen, J. Wu, J. Zhao, and Y. Zhao, “Neuroprotective effects of diallyl sulfide against transient focal cerebral ischemia via anti-apoptosis in rats,” Neurological Research, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 32–37, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. Ren, A. Du, D. Li, J. Sui, W. G. Mayhan, and H. Zhao, “Dynamic change of hydrogen sulfide during global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and its effect in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1345, pp. 197–205, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Bhattacharyya, R. Chattopadhyay, S. Mitra, and S. E. Crowe, “Oxidative stress: an essential factor in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal mucosal diseases,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 329–354, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. X. Gan, G. Su, W. Zhao, P. Huang, G. Luo, and Z. Hei, “The mechanism of sevoflurane preconditioning-induced protections against small intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury is independent of mast cell in rats,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2013, Article ID 378703, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Kim, S. W. Park, V. D. D'Agati, and H. T. Lee, “Isoflurane post-conditioning protects against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury and multiorgan dysfunction via transforming growth factor-β1 generation,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 255, no. 3, pp. 492–503, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Liu, X.-B. Bai, S. Shi, and Y.-X. Cao, “Hydrogen sulfide protects from intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 207–212, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. C. L. Wu, F. H. Brennan, J. P. L. Lynch et al., “The receptor for complement component C3a mediates protection from intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injuries by inhibiting neutrophil mobilization,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 23, pp. 9439–9444, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. W. Henderson, A. L. Weinstein, A. M. Sohn, N. Jimenez, D. D. Krijgh, and J. A. Spector, “Hydrogen sulfide attenuates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury when delivered in the post-ischemic period,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1642–1647, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Guo, F. Liang, W. S. Masood, and X. Yan, “Hydrogen sulfide protected gastric epithelial cell from ischemia/reperfusion injury by Keap1 s-sulfhydration, MAPK dependent anti-apoptosis and NF-κB dependent anti-inflammation pathway,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 725, no. 1, pp. 70–78, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. Y. Li, J.-F. Zhang, Y.-M. Zhang, and X.-B. Ma, “The protective effect of genistein postconditioning on hypoxia/ reoxygenation-induced injury in human gastric epithelial cells,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 576–581, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Cui, L. Liu, J. Zou et al., “Protective effect of endogenous hydrogen sulfide against oxidative stress in gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 689–694, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. A. Mard, N. Neisi, G. Solgi, M. Hassanpour, M. Darbor, and M. Maleki, “Gastroprotective effect of NaHS against mucosal lesions induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1496–1503, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. J. Ball, A. J. Reiffel, S. Chintalapani, M. Kim, J. A. Spector, and M. R. King, “Hydrogen sulfide reduces neutrophil recruitment in hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion injury in an l-selectin and ADAM-17-dependent manner,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 487–497, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. P. W. Henderson, S. P. Singh, A. L. Weinstein et al., “Therapeutic metabolic inhibition: hydrogen sulfide significantly mitigates skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1890–1898, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. F. Beyersdorf, “The use of controlled reperfusion strategies in cardiac surgery to minimize ischaemia/reperfusion damage,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 262–268, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. W. Henderson, N. Jimenez, J. Ruffino et al., “Therapeutic delivery of hydrogen sulfide for salvage of ischemic skeletal muscle after the onset of critical ischemia,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 785–791, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. W. Chen, G. Zheng, S. Yang et al., “CYP2J2 and EETs protect against oxidative stress and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro following lung ischemia/reperfusion,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1663–1680, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. de Perrot, M. Liu, T. K. Waddell, and S. Keshavjee, “Ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 490–511, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. W. A. den Hengst, J. F. Gielis, J. Y. Lin, P. E. van Schil, L. J. de Windt, and A. L. Moens, “Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury: a molecular and clinical view on a complex pathophysiological process,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 299, no. 5, pp. H1283–H1299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. Zhang, J.-S. Wang, Z.-K. Zheng et al., “Participation of autophagy in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 182, no. 2, pp. E79–E87, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. M. Dodd-o, M. L. Hristopoulos, L. E. Welsh-Servinsky, C. G. Tankersley, and D. B. Pearse, “Strain-specific differences in sensitivity to ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in mice,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1590–1595, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J.-H. Cho, X. Mu, S. W. Wang, and W. H. Klein, “Retinal ganglion cell death and optic nerve degeneration by genetic ablation in adult mice,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 542–552, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. B.-J. Kim, T. A. Braun, R. J. Wordinger, and A. F. Clark, “Progressive morphological changes and impaired retinal function associated with temporal regulation of gene expression after retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice,” Molecular Neurodegeneration, vol. 8, no. 1, article 21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. K. Andreeva, M. Zhang, W. Fan et al., “Time-dependent gene profiling indicates the presence of different phases for ischemia/reperfusion injury in retina,” Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases, vol. 6, pp. 43–54, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. M.-H. Sun, J.-H. S. Pang, S.-L. Chen et al., “Retinal protection from acute glaucoma-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury through pharmacologic induction of heme oxygenase-1,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 4798–4808, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. N. Osborne, R. J. Casson, J. P. M. Wood, G. Chidlow, M. Graham, and J. Melena, “Retinal ischemia: mechanisms of damage and potential therapeutic strategies,” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 91–147, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. Biermann, W. A. Lagrèze, N. Schallner, C. I. Schwer, and U. Goebel, “Inhalative preconditioning with hydrogen sulfide attenuated apoptosis after retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Molecular Vision, vol. 17, pp. 1275–1286, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. N. N. Osborne, D. Ji, A. S. A. Majid, R. J. Fawcett, A. Sparatore, and P. Del Soldato, “ACS67, a hydrogen sulfide-releasing derivative of latanoprost acid, attenuates retinal ischemia and oxidative stress to RGC-5 cells in culture,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 284–294, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L. Li, M. Whiteman, Y. Y. Guan et al., “Characterization of a novel, water-soluble hydrogen sulfide-releasing molecule (GYY4137): new insights into the biology of hydrogen sulfide,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 18, pp. 2351–2360, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. Z.-W. Lee, X.-Y. Teo, E. Y.-W. Tay et al., “Utilizing hydrogen sulfide as a novel anti-cancer agent by targeting cancer glycolysis and pH imbalance,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 171, no. 18, pp. 4322–4336, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. C. N. Wang, Y. J. Liu, G. L. Duan et al., “CBS and CSE are critical for maintenance of mitochondrial function and glucocorticoid production in adrenal cortex,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 2192–2207, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  89. N. Ning, J. Zhu, Y. Du, X. Gao, C. Liu, and J. Li, “Dysregulation of hydrogen sulphide metabolism impairs oviductal transport of embryos,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, p. 4107, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. H. Robinson and S. Wray, “A new slow releasing, H2S generating compound, GYY4137 relaxes spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractions of human and rat pregnant myometrium,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e46278, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. E. Grambow, F. Mueller-Graf, E. Delyagina, M. Frank, A. Kuhla, and B. Vollmar, “Effect of the hydrogen sulfide donor GYY4137 on platelet activation and microvascular thrombus formation in mice,” Platelets, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 166–174, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. J. Jia, Y. Xiao, W. Wang et al., “Differential mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of hydrogen sulfide donors against oxidative stress,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1072–1078, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. C. Köhn, J. Schleifenbaum, I. A. Szijártó et al., “Differential effects of cystathionine-γ-lyase-dependent vasodilatory H2S in periadventitial vasoregulation of rat and mouse aortas,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 8, Article ID e41951, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. X. Zhou, Y. Cao, G. Ao et al., “CaMKKβ-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase is critical to suppressive effects of hydrogen sulfide on neuroinflammation,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1741–1758, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. B. Szczesny, K. Módis, K. Yanagi et al., “AP39, a novel mitochondria-targeted hydrogen sulfide donor, stimulates cellular bioenergetics, exerts cytoprotective effects and protects against the loss of mitochondrial DNA integrity in oxidatively stressed endothelial cells in vitro,” Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry, vol. 41, pp. 120–130, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. C. Foster, C. R. Powell, S. C. Radzinski, and J. B. Matson, “S-aroylthiooximes: a facile route to hydrogen sulfide releasing compounds with structure-dependent release kinetics,” Organic Letters, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1558–1561, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. Kan, W. Guo, C. Huang, G. Bao, Y. Zhu, and Y. Z. Zhu, “S-propargyl-cysteine, a novel water-soluble modulator of endogenous hydrogen sulfide, promotes angiogenesis through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 2303–2316, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Zhu et al., “H2S donor, S-propargyl-cysteine, increases CSE in SGC-7901 and cancer-induced mice: evidence for a novel anti-cancer effect of endogenous H2S?” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e20525, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. Q. Wang, X.-L. Wang, H.-R. Liu, P. Rose, and Y.-Z. Zhu, “Protective effects of cysteine analogues on acute myocardial ischemia: novel modulators of endogenous H2S production,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1155–1165, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. L.-L. Pan, X.-H. Liu, Q.-H. Gong, and Y.-Z. Zhu, “S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cells involved in a hydrogen sulfide-dependent mechanism,” Amino Acids, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 205–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. K. Kondo, S. Bhushan, A. L. King et al., “H2S protects against pressure overload-induced heart failure via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase,” Circulation, vol. 127, no. 10, pp. 1116–1127, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. F. Liu, D.-D. Chen, X. Sun et al., “Hydrogen sulfide improves wound healing via restoration of endothelial progenitor cell functions and activation of angiopoietin-1 in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1763–1778, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. Martelli, L. Testai, V. Citi et al., “Arylthioamides as H2S donors: l-cysteine-activated releasing properties and vascular effects in vitro and in vivo,” ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 904–908, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. Y. Zhao, H. Wang, and M. Xian, “Cysteine-activated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 15–17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. D. Giustarini, A. Milzani, I. Dalle-Donne, D. Tsikas, and R. Rossi, “N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester (NACET): a novel lipophilic cell-permeable cysteine derivative with an unusual pharmacokinetic feature and remarkable antioxidant potential,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 1522–1533, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. A. Martelli, L. Testai, V. Citi et al., “Pharmacological characterization of the vascular effects of aryl isothiocyanates: is hydrogen sulfide the real player?” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. E. Ekundi-Valentim, K. T. Santos, E. A. Camargo et al., “Differing effects of exogenous and endogenous hydrogen sulphide in carrageenan-induced knee joint synovitis in the rat: research paper,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 159, no. 7, pp. 1463–1474, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. V. R. Medeiros, V. H. Bezerra, A. S. Gomes et al., “Hydrogen sulfide prevents ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice: role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 330, no. 3, pp. 764–770, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. Z. Zhou, M. Von Wantoch Rekowski, C. Coletta et al., “Thioglycine and l-thiovaline: biologically active H2S-donors,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 2675–2678, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. Y. Zhao, S. Bhushan, C. Yang et al., “Controllable hydrogen sulfide donors and their activity against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury,” ACS Chemical Biology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1283–1290, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. N. Fukushima, N. Ieda, K. Sasakura et al., “Synthesis of a photocontrollable hydrogen sulfide donor using ketoprofenate photocages,” Chemical Communications, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 587–589, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. V. Citi, A. Martelli, L. Testai, A. Marino, M. Breschi, and V. Calderone, “Hydrogen sulfide releasing capacity of natural isothiocyanates: is it a reliable explanation for the multiple biological effects of Brassicaceae?” Planta Medica, vol. 80, no. 8-9, pp. 610–613, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. U. Hasegawa and A. J. van der Vlies, “Design and synthesis of polymeric hydrogen sulfide donors,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1290–1300, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. E. Marutani, S. Kosugi, K. Tokuda et al., “A novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist prevents ischemic neuronal death,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 287, no. 38, pp. 32124–32135, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. N. N. Osborne, D. Ji, A. S. A. Majid, P. Del Soldata, and A. Sparatore, “Glutamate oxidative injury to RGC-5 cells in culture is necrostatin sensitive and blunted by a hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative of aspirin (ACS14),” Neurochemistry International, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 365–378, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. C. H. Switzer, R. Y.-S. Cheng, L. A. Ridnour et al., “Dithiolethiones inhibit NF-κB activity via covalent modification in human estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 2394–2404, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. J. S. Isenberg, Y. Jia, L. Field et al., “Modulation of angiogenesis by dithiolethione-modified NSAIDs and valproic acid,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. M. Lee, V. Tazzari, D. Giustarini et al., “Effects of hydrogen sulfide-releasing L-DOPA derivatives on glial activation: potential for treating Parkinson disease,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 285, no. 23, pp. 17318–17328, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. X.-Q. Tang, R.-Q. Chen, L. Dong et al., “Role of paraoxonase-1 in the protection of hydrogen sulfide-donating sildenafil (ACS6) against homocysteine-induced neurotoxicity,” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. S. Muzaffar, J. Y. Jeremy, A. Sparatore, P. Del Soldato, G. D. Angelini, and N. Shukla, “H2S-donating sildenafil (ACS6) inhibits superoxide formation and gp91 phox expression in arterial endothelial cells: Role of protein kinases A and G,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 155, no. 7, pp. 984–994, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. Q. Huang, A. Sparatore, P. Del Soldato, L. Wu, K. Desai, and R. Nagaraj, “Hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirin, ACS14, attenuates high glucose-induced increased methylglyoxal and oxidative stress in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 6, Article ID e97315, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. H. Zhang, C. Guo, A. Zhang et al., “Effect of S-aspirin, a novel hydrogen-sulfide-releasing aspirin (ACS14), on atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 697, no. 1–3, pp. 106–116, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. J. Pircher, F. Fochler, T. Czermak et al., “Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin derivative acs14 exerts strong antithrombotic effects in vitro and in vivo,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2884–2891, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. G. Rossoni, B. Manfredi, V. Tazzari et al., “Activity of a new hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin (ACS14) on pathological cardiovascular alterations induced by glutathione depletion in rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 648, no. 1–3, pp. 139–145, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. D. Giustarini, P. Del Soldato, A. Sparatore, and R. Rossi, “Modulation of thiol homeostasis induced by H2S-releasing aspirin,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1263–1272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. S. E. Bass, P. Sienkiewicz, C. J. MacDonald et al., “Novel dithiolethione-modified nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human hepatoma HepG2 and colon LS180 cells,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1964–1972, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. J. Frantzias, J. G. Logan, P. Mollat et al., “Hydrogen sulphide-releasing diclofenac derivatives inhibit breast cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevent osteolysis ex vivo,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 165, no. 6, pp. 1914–1925, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. M. Bhatia, J. N. Sidhapuriwala, A. Sparatore, and P. K. Moore, “Treatment with H2S-releasing diclofenac protects mice against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury,” Shock, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 84–88, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. A. Tesei, G. Brigliadori, S. Carloni et al., “Organosulfur derivatives of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid sensitize human lung cancer cell lines to apoptosis and to cisplatin cytotoxicity,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 227, no. 10, pp. 3389–3396, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. E. Perrino, C. Uliva, C. Lanzi, P. D. Soldato, E. Masini, and A. Sparatore, “New prostaglandin derivative for glaucoma treatment,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1639–1642, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. B. L. Predmore, D. J. Lefer, and G. Gojon, “Hydrogen sulfide in biochemistry and medicine,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 119–140, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. L. Xie, L.-F. Hu, X. Q. Teo et al., “Therapeutic effect of hydrogen sulfide-releasing L-Dopa derivative ACS84 on 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rat model,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 4, Article ID e60200, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. C. Szabõ, “Hydrogen sulphide and its therapeutic potential,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 917–935, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. J. L. Wallace, G. Caliendo, V. Santagada, G. Cirino, and S. Fiorucci, “Gastrointestinal safety and anti-inflammatory effects of a hydrogen sulfide-releasing diclofenac derivative in the rat,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 261–271, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. J. L. Wallace, “Hydrogen sulfide-releasing anti-inflammatory drugs,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 501–505, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. L. Wallace, G. Caliendo, V. Santagada, and G. Cirino, “Markedly reduced toxicity of a hydrogen sulphide-releasing derivative of naproxen (ATB-346),” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 159, no. 6, pp. 1236–1246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. W. Elsheikh, R. W. Blackler, K. L. Flannigan, and J. L. Wallace, “Enhanced chemopreventive effects of a hydrogen sulfide-releasing anti-inflammatory drug (ATB-346) in experimental colorectal cancer,” Nitric Oxide, vol. 41, pp. 131–137, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. S. Fiorucci, S. Orlandi, A. Mencarelli et al., “Enhanced activity of a hydrogen sulphide-releasing derivative of mesalamine (ATB-429) in a mouse model of colitis,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 150, no. 8, pp. 996–1002, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. E. Distrutti, L. Sediari, A. Mencarelli et al., “5-Amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-(5-thioxo-5H-[1,2]dithiol-3yl)-phenyl ester (ATB-429), a hydrogen sulfide-releasing derivative of mesalamine, exerts antinociceptive effects in a model of postinflammatory hypersensitivity,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 319, no. 1, pp. 447–458, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. M. Chattopadhyay, R. Kodela, N. Nath, A. Barsegian, D. Boring, and K. Kashfi, “Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin suppresses NF-κB signaling in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 723–732, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. X. Wang, L. Wang, X. Sheng et al., “Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of hydrogen sulfide releasing derivatives of 3-n-butylphthalide as potential antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents,” Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 31, pp. 5995–6004, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. A. Martelli, L. Testai, A. Marino, M. C. Breschi, F. da Settimo, and V. Calderone, “Hydrogen sulphide: biopharmacological roles in the cardiovascular system and pharmaceutical perspectives,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 20, pp. 3325–3336, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. M. Chattopadhyay, R. Kodela, K. R. Olson, and K. Kashfi, “NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 419, no. 3, pp. 523–528, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. M. Lee, E. Mcgeer, R. Kodela, K. Kashfi, and P. L. Mcgeer, “NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide releasing hybrid, attenuates neuroinflammation induced by microglial and astrocytic activation: a new candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders,” Glia, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 1724–1734, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. R. Kodela, M. Chattopadhyay, and K. Kashfi, “Synthesis and biological activity of NOSH-naproxen (AVT-219) and NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) as potent anti-inflammatory agents with chemotherapeutic potential,” MedChemComm, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1472–1481, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. G. Rossoni, A. Sparatore, V. Tazzari, B. Manfredi, P. D. Soldato, and F. Berti, “The hydrogen sulphide-releasing derivative of diclofenac protects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated rabbit heart,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 100–109, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. M. Bucci, V. Vellecco, A. Cantalupo et al., “Hydrogen sulfide accounts for the peripheral vascular effects of zofenopril independently of ACE inhibition,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 138–147, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. K. Issa, A. Kimmoun, S. Collin et al., “Compared effects of inhibition and exogenous administration of hydrogen sulphide in ischaemia-reperfusion injury,” Critical Care, vol. 17, article R129, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. A. Sivarajah, M. Collino, M. Yasin et al., “Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen sulfide in a rat model of regional myocardial l/R,” Shock, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 267–274, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. M. G. Alves, A. F. Soares, R. A. Carvalho, and P. J. Oliveira, “Sodium hydrosulfide improves the protective potential of the cardioplegic histidine buffer solution,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 654, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. Y. Ji, Q.-F. Pang, G. Xu, L. Wang, J.-K. Wang, and Y.-M. Zeng, “Exogenous hydrogen sulfide postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 587, no. 1–3, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. W.-H. Sun, F. Liu, Y. Chen, and Y.-C. Zhu, “Hydrogen sulfide decreases the levels of ROS by inhibiting mitochondrial complex IV and increasing SOD activities in cardiomyocytes under ischemia/reperfusion,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 421, no. 2, pp. 164–169, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. H.-F. Luan, Z.-B. Zhao, Q.-H. Zhao, P. Zhu, M.-Y. Xiu, and Y. Ji, “Hydrogen sulfide postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia and reperfusion injury mediated by the JAK2/STAT3 survival pathway,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 898–905, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. M. Bliksøen, M.-L. Kaljusto, J. Vaage, and K.-O. Stensløkken, “Effects of hydrogen sulphide on ischaemia-reperfusion injury and ischaemic preconditioning in the isolated, perfused rat heart,” European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 344–349, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. D. J. Elsey, R. C. Fowkes, and G. F. Baxter, “L-cysteine stimulates hydrogen sulfide synthesis in myocardium associated with attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. Y. Gao, X. Yao, Y. Zhang et al., “The protective role of hydrogen sulfide in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in diabetic rats,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. J. S. Bian, C. Y. Qian, T. T. Pan et al., “Role of hydrogen sulfide in the cardioprotection caused by ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart and cardiac myocytes,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 316, no. 2, pp. 670–678, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. Y. Hu, X. Chen, T.-T. Pan et al., “Cardioprotection induced by hydrogen sulfide preconditioning involves activation of ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways,” Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 455, no. 4, pp. 607–616, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. L.-F. Hu, T.-T. Pan, K. L. Neo, Q. C. Yong, and J.-S. Bian, “Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates the delayed cardioprotection induced by hydrogen sulfide preconditioning in isolated rat cardiomyocytes,” Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 455, no. 6, pp. 971–978, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. N. R. Sodha, R. T. Clements, J. Feng et al., “Hydrogen sulfide therapy attenuates the inflammatory response in a porcine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 977–984, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. N. R. Sodha, R. T. Clements, J. Feng et al., “The effects of therapeutic sulfide on myocardial apoptosis in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 906–913, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. D. Johansen, K. Ytrehus, and G. F. Baxter, “Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Evidence for a role of KATP channels,” Basic Research in Cardiology, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. F. Ganster, M. Burban, M. de la Bourdonnaye et al., “Effects of hydrogen sulfide on hemodynamics, inflammatory response and oxidative stress during resuscitated hemorrhagic shock in rats,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 5, article R165, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. L. L. Yao, X. W. Huang, Y. G. Wang, Y. X. Cao, C. C. Zhang, and Y. C. Zhu, “Hydrogen sulfide protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis by preventing GSK-3β-dependent opening of mPTP,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 298, no. 5, pp. H1310–H1319, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. B. F. Peake, C. K. Nicholson, J. P. Lambert et al., “Hydrogen sulfide preconditions the db/db diabetic mouse heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating Nrf2 signaling in an Erk-dependent manner,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 304, no. 9, pp. H1215–H1224, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. X. Yao, G. Tan, C. He et al., “Hydrogen sulfide protects cardiomyocytes from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by enhancing phosphorylation of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain,” The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 226, no. 4, pp. 275–285, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. J. W. Elrod, J. W. Calvert, J. Morrison et al., “Hydrogen sulfide attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by preservation of mitochondrial function,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 39, pp. 15560–15565, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. S. Toldo, A. Das, E. Mezzaroma et al., “Induction of microRNA-21 with exogenous hydrogen sulfide attenuates myocardial ischemic and inflammatory injury in mice,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 311–320, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  169. J. W. Calvert, S. Jha, S. Gundewar et al., “Hydrogen sulfide mediates cardioprotection through nrf2 signaling,” Circulation Research, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 365–374, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. W.-J. Zhang, Z.-X. Shi, B.-B. Wang, Y.-J. Cui, J.-Z. Guo, and B. Li, “Allitridum mimics effect of ischemic preconditioning by activation of protein kinase C,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 132–136, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. Y. Zhou, D. Wang, X. Gao, K. Lew, A. M. Richards, and P. Wang, “mTORC2 phosphorylation of Akt1: a possible mechanism for hydrogen sulfide-induced cardioprotection,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 6, Article ID e99665, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  172. A. Sivarajah, M. C. McDonald, and C. Thiemermann, “The production of hydrogen sulfide limits myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury and contributes to the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning with endotoxin, but not ischemia in the rat,” Shock, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. B. Kang, J. Hong, J. Xiao et al., “Involvement of miR-1 in the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 6845–6853, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  174. S. Minamishima, M. Bougaki, P. Y. Sips et al., “Hydrogen sulfide improves survival after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation via a nitric oxide synthase 3-dependent mechanism in mice,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 10, pp. 888–896, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. Y. Zhuo, P.-F. Chen, A.-Z. Zhang, H. Zhong, C.-Q. Chen, and Y.-Z. Zhu, “Cardioprotective effect of hydrogen sulfide in ischemic reperfusion experimental rats and its influence on expression of survivin gene,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1406–1410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. R. M. Osipov, M. P. Robich, J. Feng et al., “Effect of hydrogen sulfide in a porcine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion: comparison of different administration regimens and characterization of the cellular mechanisms of protection,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 287–297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. Y. Chen, Z. Liu, and X. Xie, “Hydrogen sulphide attenuates renal and cardiac injury after total hepatic ischemia and reperfusion,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. e305–e313, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. I. H. Shaik, J. M. George, T. J. Thekkumkara, and R. Mehvar, “Protective effects of diallyl sulfide, a garlic constituent, on the warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 2231–2242, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. S. Jha, J. W. Calvert, M. R. Duranski, A. Ramachandran, and D. J. Lefer, “Hydrogen sulfide attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of antioxidant and antiapoptotic signaling,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 295, no. 2, pp. H801–H806, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. E. M. Bos, P. M. Snijder, H. Jekel et al., “Beneficial effects of gaseous hydrogen sulfide in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Transplant International, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 897–908, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. P. Cheng, F. Wang, K. Chen et al., “Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced hepatitis by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy pathways,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, Article ID 935251, 16 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  182. Q. Zhang, H. Fu, H. Zhang et al., “Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects rat liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Akt-GSK-3β signaling and inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e74422, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. E. M. Bos, H. G. D. Leuvenink, P. M. Snijder et al., “Hydrogen sulfide-induced hypometabolism prevents renal ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1901–1905, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. J. P. Hunter, S. A. Hosgood, M. Patel, R. Rose, K. Read, and M. L. Nicholson, “Effects of hydrogen sulphide in an experimental model of renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 1665–1671, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. S. A. Hosgood and M. L. Nicholson, “Hydrogen sulphide ameliorates ischaemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental model of non-heart-beating donor kidney transplantation,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 202–209, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. P. Tripatara, N. S. A. Patel, V. Brancaleone et al., “Characterisation of cystathionine gamma-lyase/hydrogen sulphide pathway in ischaemia/reperfusion injury of the mouse kidney: an in vivo study,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 606, no. 1–3, pp. 205–209, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. P. Tripatara, N. S. A. Patel, M. Collino et al., “Generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide by cystathionine γ-lyase limits renal ischemia/reperfusion injury and dysfunction,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 1038–1048, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. I. Lobb, J. Zhu, W. Liu, A. Haig, Z. Lan, and A. Sener, “Hydrogen sulfide treatment ameliorates long-term renal dysfunction resulting from prolonged warm renal ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Canadian Urological Association Journal, vol. 8, no. 5-6, pp. E413–E418, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  189. J. X. G. Zhu, M. Kalbfleisch, Y. X. Yang et al., “Detrimental effects of prolonged warm renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury are abrogated by supplemental hydrogen sulphide: an analysis using real-time intravital microscopy and polymerase chain reaction,” BJU International, vol. 110, no. 11, pp. E1218–E1227, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. F. Simon, A. Scheuerle, M. Gröger et al., “Effects of intravenous sulfide during porcine aortic occlusion-induced kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Shock, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 156–163, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. Z. Xu, G. Prathapasinghe, N. Wu, S. Y. Hwang, Y. L. Siow, and O. Karmin, “Ischemia-reperfusion reduces cystathionine-β-synthase-mediated hydrogen sulfide generation in the kidney,” The American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 297, no. 1, pp. F27–F35, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus