Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 329306, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/329306
Research Article

Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine, Glutathione, and Ascorbic Acid in Acute Toxicity of Paraoxon to Wistar Rats: Survival Study

1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE
2Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
3Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

Received 19 December 2014; Accepted 16 March 2015

Academic Editor: Sanghamitra Raha

Copyright © 2015 Syed M. Nurulain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Karalliedde and N. Senanayake, “Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning,” Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 4–9, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. M. Nurulain, “Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment,” Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 712–717, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. Y. Yurumez, M. Cemek, Y. Yavuz, Y. O. Birdane, and M. E. Buyukokuroglu, “Beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine against organophosphate toxicity in mice,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 490–494, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. E. Buyukokuroglu, M. Cemek, Y. Yurumez, Y. Yavuz, and A. Aslan, “Antioxidative role of melatonin in organophosphate toxicity in rats,” Cell Biology and Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 151–158, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Yu, Z. Wang, B. Ju, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and D. Bai, “Apoptotic effect of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos on mouse retina in vivo via oxidative stress and protection of combination of vitamins C and E,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 415–423, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Soltaninejad and M. Abdollahi, “Current opinion on the science of organophosphate pesticides and toxic stress: a systematic review,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. RA75–RA90, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Lukaszewicz-Hussain, “Role of oxidative stress in organophosphate insecticide toxicity—short review,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Abdollahi and S. Karami-Mohajeri, “A comprehensive review on experimental and clinical findings in intermediate syndrome caused by organophosphate poisoning,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 258, no. 3, pp. 309–314, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. F. Ambali and M. B. Aliyu, “Short-term sensorimotor and cognitive changes induced by acute chlorpyrifos exposure in wistar rats: ameliorative effect of vitamin E,” Pharmacologia, vol. 3, pp. 31–38, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. S. Mostafalou, M. A. Eghbal, A. Nili-Ahmadabadi, M. Baeeri, and M. Abdollahi, “Biochemical evidence on the potential role of organophosphates in hepatic glucose metabolism toward insulin resistance through inflammatory signaling and free radical pathways,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 840–851, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Uchendu, S. F. Ambali, and J. O. Ayo, “The organophosphate, chlorpyrifos, oxidative stress and the role of some antioxidants: a review,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 7, no. 18, pp. 2720–2728, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. J.-W. Zhang, G.-C. Lv, and Y. Zhao, “The significance of the measurement of serum xanthine oxidase and oxidation markers in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,” Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 458–465, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. A. Hundekari, A. N. Suryakar, and D. B. Rathi, “Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning cases of North Karnataka (India),” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  14. S. Shadnia, S. Ashrafivand, S. Mostafalou, and M. Abdollahi, “N-acetylcysteine a novel treatment for acute human organophosphate poisoning,” International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 732–735, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. M. Nurulain, P. Szegi, K. Tekes, and S. N. Naqvi, “Antioxidants in organophosphorus compounds poisoning,” Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 169–177, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. M. Nurulain, D. E. Lorke, M. Y. Hasan et al., “Efficacy of eight experimental bispyridinium oximes against paraoxon-induced mortality: comparison with the conventional oximes pralidoxime and obidoxime,” Neurotoxicity Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Jiang, L. Lu, T. Wang, L. Zhang, W. Xin, and F. Fu, “Reduced glutathione attenuates liver injury induced by methyl parathion in rats,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. M. Antunes, J. D. Darin, and M. D. Bianchi, “Protective effects of vitamin C against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in adult rats: a dose-dependent study,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 405–411, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. J. Sr. Lewis, Ed., Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 11th edition, 2004.
  20. M. Ash and I. Ash, Handbook of Preservatives, Synapse Information Resources, 2004.
  21. 2015, http://www.lookchem.com/Glutathione/.
  22. V. Demole, “CVII. On the physiological action of ascorbic acid and some related compounds,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 28, pp. 770–773, 1934. View at Google Scholar
  23. D. R. Cox, “Regression models and life tables,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B, vol. 34, pp. 189–220, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Kose, N. Gunay, B. Kose, A. R. Ocak, O. Erel, and A. T. Demiryurek, “Effects of atropine and pralidoxime pretreatment on serum and cardiac oxidative stress parameters in acute dichlorvos toxicity in rats,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 249–255, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Gunay, A. Kose, M. Tarakcioglu, N. E. Gunay, and A. T. Demiryurek, “Evaluation of cardiac oxidative stress parameters and mortality in a rat model of organophosphate poisoning.in acute dichlorvos toxicity in rats,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 249–255, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. A. Kubli and Å. B. Gustafsson, “Mitochondria and mitophagy: the yin and yang of cell death control,” Circulation Research, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 1208–1221, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. R. Buettner and B. A. Jurkiewicz, “Catalytic metals, ascorbate and free radicals: combinations to avoid,” Radiation Research, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 532–541, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. F. Galley, M. J. Davies, and N. R. Webster, “Ascorbyl radical formation in patients with sepsis: effect of ascorbate loading,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 139–143, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Bjelakovic, D. Nikolova, L. L. Gluud, R. G. Simonetti, and C. Gluud, “Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 14, no. 3, Article ID CD007176, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus