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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 632902, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/632902
Review Article

Cell Adhesion and Long-Term Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Prerequisite for Cell Therapy

1Institute for Bio-Medical Convergence, College of Medicine, Catholic Kwandong University, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do 210-701, Republic of Korea
2Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary’s Hospital, Incheon Metropolitan City 404-834, Republic of Korea

Received 20 November 2014; Accepted 19 January 2015

Academic Editor: Jean-Claude Lavoie

Copyright © 2015 Seahyoung Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The literature provides abundant evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive resource for therapeutics and have beneficial effects in regenerating injured tissues due to their self-renewal ability and broad differentiation potential. Although the therapeutic potential of MSCs has been proven in both preclinical and clinical studies, several questions have not yet been addressed. A major limitation to the use of MSCs in clinical applications is their poor viability at the site of injury due to the harsh microenvironment and to anoikis driven by the loss of cell adhesion. To improve the survival of the transplanted MSCs, strategies to regulate apoptotic signaling and enhance cell adhesion have been developed, such as pretreatment with cytokines, growth factors, and antiapoptotic molecules, genetic modifications, and hypoxic preconditioning. More appropriate animal models and a greater understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs will be required for their successful clinical application. Nevertheless, the development of stem cell therapies using MSCs has the potential to treat degenerative diseases. This review discusses various approaches to improving MSC survival by inhibiting anoikis.