Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 756294, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/756294
Clinical Study

Effects of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin and Rosuvastatin on Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

1Instituto de Investigación Clínica de Occidente, 45030 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
2Instituto de Terapéutica Experimental y Clínica, Departamento de Fisiología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
3Departamento de Farmacobiología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44100 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
4Sección de Estudios de Posgrado, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 11340 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
5Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA

Received 28 May 2015; Accepted 6 July 2015

Academic Editor: Silvana Hrelia

Copyright © 2015 Geannyne Villegas-Rivera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. Dyck, K. M. Kratz, J. L. Karnes et al., “The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the Rochester diabetic neuropathy study,” Neurology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 817–824, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Z. A. Kamenov and L. D. Traykov, “Diabetic somatic neuropathy,” Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology, vol. 771, pp. 155–175, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. J. Dyck, “Detection, characterization, and staging of polyneuropathy: assessed in diabetics,” Muscle & Nerve, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. J. Dyck and C. Giannini, “Pathologic alterations in the diabetic neuropathies of humans: a review,” Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1181–1193, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. M. Vincent, M. Brownlee, and J. W. Russell, “Oxidative stress and programmed cell death in diabetic neuropathy,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 959, pp. 368–383, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. M. Vincent, J. W. Russell, P. Low, and E. L. Feldman, “Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 612–628, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. W. Russell, D. Golovoy, A. M. Vincent et al., “High glucose-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in nuerons,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 1738–1748, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, “The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 14, pp. 977–986, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. “Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9131, pp. 837–853, 1998.
  10. F. Ismail-Beigi, T. Craven, M. A. Banerji et al., “Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the ACCORD randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9739, pp. 419–430, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. M. Vincent, L. M. Hinder, R. Pop-Busui, and E. L. Feldman, “Hyperlipidemia: a new therapeutic target for diabetic neuropathy,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 257–267, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. D. Wiggin, K. A. Sullivan, R. Pop-Busui, A. Amato, A. A. F. Sima, and E. L. Feldman, “Elevated triglycerides correlate with progression of diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 1634–1640, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Girach, D. Manner, and M. Porta, “Diabetic microvascular complications: can patients at risk be identified? A review,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1471–1483, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Pande, J. Hur, Y. Hong et al., “Transcriptional profiling of diabetic neuropathy in the BKS db/db mouse: a model of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 1981–1989, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Taylor, M. D. Huffman, A. F. Macedo et al., “Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 1, Article ID CD004816, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. K. Liao and U. Laufs, “Pleiotropic effects of statins,” Annual Review of Pharmacology & Toxicology, vol. 45, pp. 89–118, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. M. E. Davis, B. B. Yeap, W. A. Davis, and D. G. Bruce, “Lipid-lowering therapy and peripheral sensory neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 562–566, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Franzoni, A. Quiñones-Galvan, F. Regoli, E. Ferrannini, and F. Galetta, “A comparative study of the in vitro antioxidant activity of statins,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 90, no. 2-3, pp. 317–321, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Grosser, K. Erdmann, A. Hemmerle et al., “Rosuvastatin upregulates the antioxidant defense protein heme oxygenase-1,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 325, no. 3, pp. 871–876, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. U. Resch, F. Tatzber, A. Budinsky, and H. Sinzinger, “Reduction of oxidative stress and modulation of autoantibodies against modified low-density lipoprotein after rosuvastatin therapy,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 262–274, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. D. England, G. S. Gronseth, G. Franklin et al., “Distal symmetric polyneuropathy: a definition for clinical research—report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 199–207, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. C. Callaghan, H. T. Cheng, C. L. Stables, A. L. Smith, and E. L. Feldman, “Diabetic neuropathy: clinical manifestations and current treatments,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 521–534, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. E. Argoff, B. E. Cole, D. A. Fishbain, and G. A. Irving, “Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: clinical and quality-of-life issues,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 81, no. 4, supplement, pp. S3–S11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. I. Vinik and A. Mehrabyan, “Diabetic neuropathies,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 947–999, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Clemens, E. Siegel, and B. Gallwitz, “Global risk management in type 2 diabetes: blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids—update on the background of the current guidelines,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 493–503, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Zangiabadi, K. Shafiee, K. H. Alavi, A. R. Assadi, and M. Damavandi, “Atorvastatin treatment improves diabetic polyneuropathy electrophysiological changes in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients: a double blind, randomized clinical trial,” Minerva Endocrinologica, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 195–200, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. Niki, “Lipid peroxidation products as oxidative stress biomarkers,” BioFactors, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 171–180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Halliwell and S. Chirico, “Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement, and significance,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 5, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Koksal, M. A. Eren, M. N. Turan, and T. Sabuncu, “The effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on oxidative stress in diabetic patients,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 249–253, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Yoshino, M. Tanaka, S. Nakano et al., “Effect of rosuvastatin on concentrations of plasma lipids, urine and plasma oxidative stress markers, and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in hypercholesterolemic patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 12-week, open-label, pilot study,” Current Therapeutic Research: Clinical & Experimental, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 439–448, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Girona, A. E. La Ville, R. Solà, N. Plana, and L. Masana, “Simvastatin decreases aldehyde production derived from lipoprotein oxidation,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 846–851, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. A. Creager, T. F. Lüscher, F. Cosentino, and J. A. Beckman, “Diabetes and vascular disease. Pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: part I,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 12, pp. 1527–1532, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P.-Y. Liu, Y.-W. Liu, L.-J. Lin, J.-H. Chen, and J. K. Liao, “Evidence for statin pleiotropy in humans: differential effects of statins and ezetimibe on Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase activity, endothelial function, and inflammation,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 131–138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. John, M. P. Schneider, C. Delles, J. Jacobi, and R. E. Schmieder, “Lipid-independent effects of statins on endothelial function and bioavailability of nitric oxide in hypercholesterolemic patients,” American Heart Journal, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 473.e1–473.e10, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. K. Koh, M. J. Quon, S. H. Han et al., “Simvastatin improves flow-mediated dilation but reduces adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in hypercholesterolemic patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 776–782, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus