Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 839748, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/839748
Research Article

Insulin Therapy of Nondiabetic Septic Patients Is Predicted by para-Tyrosine/Phenylalanine Ratio and by Hydroxyl Radical-Derived Products of Phenylalanine

12nd Department of Medicine and Nephrological Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pécs, Pacsirta Street 1, Pécs 7624, Hungary
2Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pécs, Rákóczi Street 2, Pécs 7623, Hungary
3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pécs, Ifjúság Street 13, Pécs 7624, Hungary

Received 10 January 2015; Accepted 3 March 2015

Academic Editor: Eric E. Kelley

Copyright © 2015 Szilárd Kun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Stumvoll, U. Chintalapudi, G. Perriello, S. Welle, O. Gutierrez, and J. Gerich, “Uptake and release of glucose by the human kidney: postabsorptive rates and responses to epinephrine,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 2528–2533, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Meyer, V. Nadkarni, M. Stumvoll, and J. Gerich, “Human kidney free fatty acid and glucose uptake: evidence for a renal glucose-fatty acid cycle,” American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 273, no. 3, pp. E650–E654, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. B. Davidson and A. L. Peters, “An overview of metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 99–110, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Meyer, M. Stumvoll, V. Nadkarni, J. Dostou, A. Mitrakou, and J. Gerich, “Abnormal renal and hepatic glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 619–624, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Meyer, M. Stumvoll, S. Welle, H. J. Woerle, M. Haymond, and J. Gerich, “Relative importance of liver, kidney, and substrates in epinephrine-induced increased gluconeogenesis in humans,” American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 285, no. 4, pp. E819–E826, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Meyer, J. Dostou, V. Nadkarni, and J. Gerich, “Effects of physiological hyperinsulinemia on systemic, renal and hepatic substrate metabolism,” The American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 275, no. 6, pp. F915–F921, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Cersosimo, P. Garlick, and J. Ferretti, “Insulin regulation of renal glucose metabolism in humans,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 276, no. 1, pp. E78–E84, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Wang, J. L. DeMayo, T. M. Hahn et al., “Tissue- and development-specific expression of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion gene in transgenic mice,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 267, no. 21, pp. 15105–15110, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. N. Rao and S. Kaufman, “Purification and state of activation of rat kidney phenylalanine hydroxylase,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 261, no. 19, pp. 8866–8876, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Crimi, V. Sica, A. S. Slutsky et al., “Role of oxidative stress in experimental sepsis and multisystem organ dysfunction,” Free Radical Research, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 665–672, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Mühl, G. Woth, L. Drenkovics et al., “Comparison of oxidative stress & leukocyte activation in patients with severe sepsis & burn injury,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 134, no. 7, pp. 69–78, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. B. Ware, J. P. Fessel, A. K. May, and L. J. Roberts, “Plasma biomarkers of oxidant stress and development of organ failure in severe sepsis,” Shock, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. R. Stadtman and B. S. Berlett, “Fenton chemistry: amino acid oxidation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 266, no. 26, pp. 17201–17211, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Galano and A. Cruz-Torres, “OH radical reactions with phenylalanine in free and peptide forms,” Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 732–738, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. E. Ayling, W. D. Pirson, J. M. Al-Janabi, and G. D. Helfand, “Kidney phenylalanine hydroxylase from man and rat. Comparison with the liver enzyme,” Biochemistry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 78–85, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Lubec, M. Hayn, W. Denk, and G. Bauer, “Brain lipid peroxidation and hydroxy radical attack following the intravenous infusion of hydrogen peroxide in an infant,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 219–223, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Dandona, P. Mohanty, W. Hamouda et al., “Rapid communication: inhibitory effect of a two day fast on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by leucocytes and plasma ortho-tyrosine and meta-tyrosine concentrations,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 2899–2902, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. A. Jörres, O. Holz, W. Zachgo et al., “The effect of repeated ozone exposures on inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and mucosal biopsies,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 1855–1861, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. A. Molnár, Z. Wagner, L. Markó et al., “Urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion in diabetes mellitus and renal failure: evidence for hydroxyl radical production,” Kidney International, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 2281–2287, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Toth, A. Koller, G. Pusch et al., “Microalbuminuria, indicated by total versus immunoreactive urinary albumins, in acute ischemic stroke patients,” Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 510–516, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. A. Molnár, V. Nemes, Z. Biró, A. Ludány, Z. Wagner, and I. Wittmann, “Accumulation of the hydroxyl free radical markers meta-, ortho-tyrosine and DOPA in cataractous lenses is accompanied by a lower protein and phenylalanine content of the water-soluble phase,” Free Radical Research, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1359–1366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. A. Szijártó, G. A. Molnár, E. Mikolás et al., “Increase in insulin-induced relaxation of consecutive arterial segments toward the periphery: role of vascular oxidative state,” Free Radical Research, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 749–757, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Kun, E. Mikolás, G. A. Molnár et al., “Association of plasma ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio with responsiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in dialyzed patients,” Redox Report, vol. 48, pp. 749–757, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  24. E. Mikolás, S. Kun, B. Laczy et al., “Incorporation of ortho- and meta-tyrosine into cellular proteins leads to erythropoietin-resistance in an erythroid cell line,” Kidney & Blood Pressure Research, vol. 38, no. 2-3, pp. 217–225, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. M. Levy, M. P. Fink, J. C. Marshall et al., “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS international sepsis definitions conference,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1250–1256, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes et al., “Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock 2012,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 165–228, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Würtz, P. Soininen, A. J. Kangas et al., “Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are predictors of insulin resistance in young adults,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 648–655, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus