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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 1015390, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1015390
Research Article

Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product Ameliorates Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induced Renal Injury, Inflammation, and Apoptosis via P38/JNK Signaling Pathways

1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
2Clinical Center for Sleep Breathing Disorder and Snoring, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
3Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China
4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University, Jiangyin 214400, China
5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Eastern Hospital, Taipei Medical University Ningbo Medical Center, Ningbo 315040, China

Received 18 April 2016; Revised 12 July 2016; Accepted 25 July 2016

Academic Editor: Hariom Yadav

Copyright © 2016 Xu Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated chronic kidney disease is mainly caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) triggered tissue damage. Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are expressed on renal cells and mediate inflammatory responses in OSA-related diseases. To determine their roles in CIH-induced renal injury, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), the RAGE neutralizing antibody, was intravenously administered in a CIH model. We also evaluated the effect of sRAGE on inflammation and apoptosis. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) normal air (NA), (2) CIH, (3) CIH+sRAGE, and (4) NA+sRAGE. Our results showed that CIH accelerated renal histological injury and upregulated RAGE-HMGB1 levels involving inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6), apoptotic (Bcl-2/Bax), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (phosphorylation of P38, ERK, and JNK) signal transduction pathways, which were abolished by sRAGE but p-ERK. Furthermore, sRAGE ameliorated renal dysfunction by attenuating tubular endothelial apoptosis determined by immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and TUNEL. These findings suggested that RAGE-HMGB1 activated chronic inflammatory transduction cascades that contributed to the pathogenesis of the CIH-induced renal injury. Inhibition of RAGE ligand interaction by sRAGE provided a therapeutic potential for CIH-induced renal injury, inflammation, and apoptosis through P38 and JNK pathways.