Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 1687657, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1687657
Research Article

Evaluation of Lasting Effects of Heat Stress on Sperm Profile and Oxidative Status of Ram Semen and Epididymal Sperm

1Department of Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, 05508 270 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain

Received 25 September 2015; Revised 30 November 2015; Accepted 2 December 2015

Academic Editor: Paola Venditti

Copyright © 2016 Thais Rose dos Santos Hamilton et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Higher temperatures lead to an increase of testicular metabolism that results in spermatic damage. Oxidative stress is the main factor responsible for testicular damage caused by heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate lasting effects of heat stress on ejaculated sperm and immediate or long-term effects of heat stress on epididymal sperm. We observed decrease in motility and mass motility of ejaculated sperm, as well as an increase in the percentages of sperm showing major and minor defects, damaged plasma and acrosome membranes, and a decrease in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated group until one spermatic cycle. An increased enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of stressed cells were observed in ejaculated sperm of the treated group. A decrease in the percentage of epididymal sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in the treated group. However, when comparing immediate and long-term effects, we observed an increase in the percentage of sperm with low mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, testicular heat stress induced oxidative stress that led to rescuable alterations after one spermatic cycle in ejaculated sperm and also after 30 days in epididymal sperm.