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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1973834, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1973834
Review Article

New Insights into the Role of Oxidative Stress Mechanisms in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Neurology in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, ul. 3 Maja 13-15, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland

Received 18 May 2016; Revised 5 August 2016; Accepted 19 September 2016

Academic Editor: Capucine Trollet

Copyright © 2016 Bożena Adamczyk and Monika Adamczyk-Sowa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by an inflammatory process and demyelination. The etiology of the disease is still not fully understood. Therefore, finding new etiological factors is of such crucial importance. It is suspected that the development of MS may be affected by oxidative stress (OS). In the acute phase OS initiates inflammatory processes and in the chronic phase it sustains neurodegeneration. Redox processes in MS are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulation of axonal bioenergetics, iron accumulation in the brain, impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, and OS memory. The present paper is a review of the current literature about the role of OS in MS and it focuses on all major aspects. The article explains the mechanisms of OS, reports unique biomarkers with regard to their clinical significance, and presents a poorly understood relationship between OS and neurodegeneration. It also provides novel methods of treatment, including the use of antioxidants and the role of antioxidants in neuroprotection. Furthermore, adding new drugs in the treatment of relapse may be useful. The article considers the significance of OS in the current treatment of MS patients.