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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 2353560, 11 pages
Research Article

The Dysregulation of Polyamine Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with Overexpression of c-Myc and C/EBPβ rather than Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis Infection

1Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia
2Orekhovich Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow 119121, Russia
3National Medical Research Center of Radiology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Moscow 125284, Russia
4Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia

Received 11 December 2015; Revised 28 March 2016; Accepted 27 April 2016

Academic Editor: Birke Bartosch

Copyright © 2016 Anastasiya V. Snezhkina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is well known that the chronic inflammation can promote the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently, a number of studies revealed a potential association between colorectal inflammation, cancer progression, and infection caused by enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF). Bacterial enterotoxin activates spermine oxidase (SMO), which produces spermidine and H2O2 as byproducts of polyamine catabolism, which, in turn, enhances inflammation and tissue injury. Using qPCR analysis, we estimated the expression of SMOX gene and ETBF colonization in CRC patients. We found no statistically significant associations between them. Then we selected genes involved in polyamine metabolism, metabolic reprogramming, and inflammation regulation and estimated their expression in CRC. We observed overexpression of SMOX, ODC1, SRM, SMS, MTAP, c-Myc, C/EBPβ (CREBP), and other genes. We found that two mediators of metabolic reprogramming, inflammation, and cell proliferation c-Myc and C/EBPβ may serve as regulators of polyamine metabolism genes (SMOX, AZIN1, MTAP, SRM, ODC1, AMD1, and AGMAT) as they are overexpressed in tumors, have binding site according to ENCODE ChIP-Seq data, and demonstrate strong coexpression with their targets. Thus, increased polyamine metabolism in CRC could be driven by c-Myc and C/EBPβ rather than ETBF infection.