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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 2423547, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2423547
Review Article

Potential Role of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in Metabolic Syndrome-Derived Platelet Hyperactivity

1Laboratory of Experimental Physiology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil
2Departamento de Bioquímica and Center for Free Radical and Biomedical Research, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay
3Health Sciences Graduate Program, Biological and Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil

Received 12 August 2016; Revised 17 October 2016; Accepted 1 November 2016

Academic Editor: Nageswara Madamanchi

Copyright © 2016 Renato Simões Gaspar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has become a worldwide epidemic, alongside with a high socioeconomic cost, and its diagnostic criteria must include at least three out of the five features: visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and high fasting glucose levels. MetS shows an increased oxidative stress associated with platelet hyperactivation, an essential component for thrombus formation and ischemic events in MetS patients. Platelet aggregation is governed by the peroxide tone and the activity of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) at the cell membrane. PDI redox active sites present active cysteine residues that can be susceptible to changes in plasma oxidative state, as observed in MetS. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the relationship between PDI and platelet hyperactivation under MetS and its metabolic features, in spite of PDI being a mediator of important pathways implicated in MetS-induced platelet hyperactivation, such as insulin resistance and nitric oxide dysfunction. Thus, the aim of this review is to analyze data available in the literature as an attempt to support a possible role for PDI in MetS-induced platelet hyperactivation.