Research Article

Melatonin-Mediated Intracellular Insulin during 2-Deoxy-d-glucose Treatment Is Reduced through Autophagy and EDC3 Protein in Insulinoma INS-1E Cells

Figure 1

Phosphorylation of AMPK, IRE1α protein expression, phosphorylation of PERK, and GRP78/BiP protein expression in the presence or absence of melatonin and/or 2-DG in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells. INS-1E cells were incubated in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% FBS with/without melatonin (100 μM) and/or 2-DG (5 mM) for 24 hr at 37°C with 5% CO2. p-AMPK expression was analyzed by Western blot (a, c). The relative amount of p-AMPK (b), IRE1α protein (d), p-PERK (e), and GRP78/BiP protein (f) was quantified as described in Section 2. Data represent mean ± SD of three experiments (). , , and versus 2% FBS; , , melatonin versus melatonin and/or 2-DG.