Melatonin-Mediated Intracellular Insulin during 2-Deoxy-d-glucose Treatment Is Reduced through Autophagy and EDC3 Protein in Insulinoma INS-1E Cells
Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), Akt (Thr308), mTOR (Ser2448), and mTOR (Ser2481) proteins in the presence or absence of melatonin and/or 2-DG in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells. INS-1E cells were incubated in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% FBS with/without melatonin (100 μM) and/or 2-DG (5 mM) for 24 hr at 37°C with 5% CO2. p-Akt was analyzed by Western blot (a, d). The relative amounts of p-Akt (Ser473) (b), p-Akt (Thr308) (c), mTOR (Ser2448) (e), and mTOR (Ser2481) (f) were quantified in Section 2. Data represent mean ± SD of three experiments (). , versus 2% FBS; , , melatonin versus melatonin and/or 2-DG.