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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 2795090, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2795090
Review Article

The Reactive Oxygen Species in Macrophage Polarization: Reflecting Its Dual Role in Progression and Treatment of Human Diseases

1School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
2Laboratory of Chinese Herbal Pharmacology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei 442000, China
3Hubei Key Laboratory of Wudang Local Chinese Medicine Research, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei 442000, China

Received 24 December 2015; Revised 13 March 2016; Accepted 15 March 2016

Academic Editor: Paola Venditti

Copyright © 2016 Hor-Yue Tan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

High heterogeneity of macrophage is associated with its functions in polarization to different functional phenotypes depending on environmental cues. Macrophages remain in balanced state in healthy subject and thus macrophage polarization may be crucial in determining the tissue fate. The two distinct populations, classically M1 and alternatively M2 activated, representing the opposing ends of the full activation spectrum, have been extensively studied for their associations with several disease progressions. Accumulating evidences have postulated that the redox signalling has implication in macrophage polarization and the key roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in tissue environment have provided the clue for the reasons of ROS abundance in certain phenotype. M1 macrophages majorly clearing the pathogens and ROS may be crucial for the regulation of M1 phenotype, whereas M2 macrophages resolve inflammation which favours oxidative metabolism. Therefore how ROS play its role in maintaining the homeostatic functions of macrophage and in particular macrophage polarization will be reviewed here. We also review the biology of macrophage polarization and the disturbance of M1/M2 balance in human diseases. The potential therapeutic opportunities targeting ROS will also be discussed, hoping to provide insights for development of target-specific delivery system or immunomodulatory antioxidant for the treatment of ROS-related diseases.