Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 3240261, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3240261
Research Article

On the Anticataractogenic Effects of L-Carnosine: Is It Best Described as an Antioxidant, Metal-Chelating Agent or Glycation Inhibitor?

1Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University London, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE, UK
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt
3School of Pharmacy, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Received 11 April 2016; Revised 9 August 2016; Accepted 29 August 2016

Academic Editor: Janusz Gebicki

Copyright © 2016 Hamdy Abdelkader et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Abdelkader, R. G. Alany, and B. Pierscionek, “Age-related cataract and drug therapy: opportunities and challenges for topical antioxidant delivery to the lens,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 537–550, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Harding, “Prevention and therapy,” in Cataract: Biochemistry, Epidemiology and Pharmacology, J. Harding, Ed., pp. 218–249, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  3. G. Brian and H. Taylor, “Cataract blindness—challenges for the 21st century,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 249–256, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. S. Zigler Jr. and H. H. Hess, “Cataracts in the Royal College of Surgeons rat: evidence for initiation by lipid peroxidation products,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 67–76, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Rosenthal, “Outcome indicators for cataract,” in Health Outcome Indicators, pp. 1–86, University of Oxford, London, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Harding, “Human cataract,” in Cataract: Biochemistry, Epidemiology and Pharmacology, J. Harding, Ed., pp. 195–217, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  7. J. Keenan and B. K. Pierscionek, “Patterns of crystallin distribution in porcine eye lenses,” Molecular Vision, vol. 14, pp. 1245–1253, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. C. Augusteyn, “On the growth and internal structure of the human lens,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 643–654, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. C. Augusteyn, “Growth of the eye lens: I. Weight accumulation in multiple species,” Molecular Vision, vol. 20, pp. 410–426, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Ahmed, “Advanced glycation endproducts—role in pathology of diabetic complications,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 3–21, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. M. Stratton, A. I. Adler, H. A. W. Neil et al., “Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7258, pp. 405–412, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Aydin, T. Cumurcu, F. Ozugurlu et al., “Levels of iron, zinc, and copper in aqueous humor, lens, and serum in nondiabetic and diabetic patients: their relation to cataract,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 108, no. 1–3, pp. 33–41, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. V. M. Monnier, V. J. Stevens, and A. Cerami, “Nonenzymatic glycosylation, sulfhydryl oxidation, and aggregation of lens proteins in experimental sugar cataracts,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 1098–1107, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. J. Tessier, “The Maillard reaction in the human body. The main discoveries and factors that affect glycation,” Pathologie Biologie, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 214–219, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Saxena, A. K. Saxena, X.-L. Cui, M. Obrenovich, K. Gudipaty, and V. M. Monnier, “Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate in human cataract extracts: possible role of advanced glycation end products,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1473–1481, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Nagai, D. B. Murray, T. O. Metz, and J. W. Baynes, “Chelation: a fundamental mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and other inhibitors of diabetes complications,” Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 549–559, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M.-A. Javadi and S. Zarei-Ghanavati, “Cataracts in diabetic patients: a review article,” Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 52–65, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. A. Babizhayev, A. I. Deyev, V. N. Yermakova et al., “Efficacy of N-acetylcarnosine in the treatment of cataracts,” Drugs in R & D, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 87–103, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. A. Babizhayev, L. Burke, P. Micans, and S. P. Richer, “N-acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 31–50, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Williams L and P. Muunday, “The effect of a topical antioxidnat formulation including N-acetylcarnosine on canine cataract: a preliminary study,” Veterinary Ophthalmology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 311–316, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. Opthalmologists, R C o. N-Acetyl Carnosine for cataracts, 2008, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcarnosine.
  22. P. J. Quinn, A. A. Boldyrev, and V. E. Formazuyk, “Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 379–444, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. A. Boldyrev, G. Aldini, and W. Derave, “Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1803–1845, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. R. Hipkiss, C. Brownson, and M. J. Carrier, “Carnosine, the anti-ageing, anti-oxidant dipeptide, may react with protein carbonyl groups,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 122, no. 13, pp. 1431–1445, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Iovine, G. Oliviero, M. Garofalo et al., “The anti-proliferative effect of L-carnosine correlates with a decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 α in human colon cancer cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 5, Article ID e96755, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. R. Hipkiss, “Would carnosine or a carnivorous diet help suppress aging and associated pathologies?” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1067, no. 1, pp. 369–374, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. R. Hipkiss and C. Brownson, “A possible new role for the anti-ageing peptide carnosine,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 747–753, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Abdelkader, J. Swinden, B. K. Pierscionek, and R. G. Alany, “Analytical and physicochemical characterisation of the senile cataract drug dipeptide β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine),” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 114, pp. 241–246, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Matsuda, T. Wang, H. Managi, and M. Yoshikawa, “Structural requirements of flavonoids for inhibition of protein glycation and radical scavenging activities,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 24, pp. 5317–5323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Apak, K. Güçlü, M. Özyürek, and S. E. Çelik, “Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 413–419, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. L. Ellman, “Tissue sulfhydryl groups,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Kisic, D. Miric, L. Zoric, A. Ilic, and I. Dragojevic, “Antioxidant capacity of lenses with age-related cataract,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2012, Article ID 467130, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. G. Sivak, M. Yoshimura, J. Weerheim, and A. Dovrat, “Effect of hydrogen peroxide, DL-propranolol, and prednisone on bovine lens optical function in culture,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 954–963, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Loste and M. C. Marca, “Fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin in the assessment of glycaemic control in dogs,” Veterinary Research, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Oppel, M. Kulcsár, L. Bárdos et al., “A new, modern, cost-saving micro/macro method for the determination of serum fructosamine,” Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 285–291, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Harding, “The normal lens,” in Cataract: Biochemistry, Epidemiology and Pharmacology, J. Harding, Ed., pp. 1–63, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  37. I. Jiménez and H. Speisky, “Effects of copper ions on the free radical-scavenging properties of reduced gluthathione: implications of a complex formation,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 161–167, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Valko, H. Morris, and M. T. D. Cronin, “Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1161–1208, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. J. W. Truscott, “Age-related nuclear cataract—oxidation is the key,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 709–725, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. K. Gupta, D. Trivedi, S. Srivastava, S. Joshi, N. Halder, and S. D. Verma, “Lycopene attenuates oxidative stress induced experimental cataract development: an in vitro and in vivo study,” Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 794–799, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. E. Dickerson, M. F. Lou, and R. W. Gracy, “The culture of rat lenses in high sugar media: effect on mixed disulfide levels,” Current Eye Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 109–118, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Kaanane and T. Labuza, “The Maillard reaction in foods,” in The Maillard Reaction in Aging, Diabetes and Nutrition, R. Alan, Ed., pp. 301–327, A. R. Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  43. P. A. Kumar, M. S. Kumar, and G. B. Reddy, “Effect of glycation on α-crystallin structure and chaperone-like function,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 408, no. 2, pp. 251–258, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Ayaki, A. Iwasawa, and Y. Inoue, “Toxicity of antiglaucoma drugs with and without benzalkonium chloride to cultured human corneal endothelial cells,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 217–1222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Eleftheriadis, M. Cheong, S. Sandeman et al., “Corneal toxicity secondary to inadvertent use of benzalkonium chloride preserved viscoelastic material in cataract surgery,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 299–305, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. Mencucci, D. E. Pellegrini-Giampietro, I. Paladini, E. Favuzza, U. Menchini, and T. Scartabelli, “Azithromycin: assessment of intrinsic cytotoxic effects on corneal epithelial cell cultures,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 7, pp. 965–971, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Abdelkader and R. G. Alany, “Controlled and continuous release ocular drug delivery systems: pros and cons,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 421–430, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus