Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 3685671, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3685671
Review Article

Phytochemicals and Biogenic Metallic Nanoparticles as Anticancer Agents

1Biotechnology Program, Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Campus Jeli, 17600 Jeli, Malaysia
2Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517502, India
3Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 654-0142, Japan
4Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Tronoh, Malaysia
5Human Genome Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia

Received 30 November 2015; Revised 5 January 2016; Accepted 24 January 2016

Academic Editor: Shreesh Ojha

Copyright © 2016 Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer, “World cancer report 2014,” WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  2. World Health Organization, Global Battle against Cancer Won't Be Won with Treatment Alone. Effective Prevention Measures Urgently Needed to Prevent Cancer Crisis, International Agency for Research on Cancer, London, UK, 2014.
  3. A. Moten, D. Schafer, P. Farmer, J. Kim, and M. Ferrari, “Redefining global health priorities: improving cancer care in developing settings,” Journal of Global Health, vol. 4, no. 1, Article ID 010304, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. H. L. Wong, R. Bendayan, A. M. Rauth, H. Y. Xue, K. Babakhanian, and X. Y. Wu, “A mechanistic study of enhanced doxorubicin uptake and retention in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells using a polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticle system,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 317, no. 3, pp. 1372–1381, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. M. Gottesman, T. Fojo, and S. E. Bates, “Multidrug resistance in cancer: role of ATP-dependent transporters,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 48–58, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Szakács, J. K. Paterson, J. A. Ludwig, C. Booth-Genthe, and M. M. Gottesman, “Targeting multidrug resistance in cancer,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 219–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. G. Komarov, E. A. Komarova, R. V. Kondratov et al., “A chemical inhibitor of p53 that protects mice from the side effects of cancer therapy,” Science, vol. 285, no. 5434, pp. 1733–1737, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Cai, Q. Luo, M. Sun, and H. Corke, “Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer,” Life Sciences, vol. 74, no. 17, pp. 2157–2184, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. M. de Almeida Alves, A. Fonseca Silva, M. Brandão et al., “Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 367–373, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. M. Cragg and D. J. Newman, “Plants as a source of anti-cancer agents,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 100, no. 1-2, pp. 72–79, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. J. Balunas and A. D. Kinghorn, “Drug discovery from medicinal plants,” Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 431–441, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Ren, Z. Qiao, H. Wang, L. Zhu, and L. Zhang, “Flavonoids: promising anticancer agents,” Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 519–534, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M.-L. Hu, “Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers,” Chang Gung Medical Journal, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 449–460, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Dzubak, M. Hajduch, D. Vydra et al., “Pharmacological activities of natural triterpenoids and their therapeutic implications,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 394–411, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J.-J. Lu, J.-L. Bao, X.-P. Chen, M. Huang, and Y.-T. Wang, “Alkaloids isolated from natural herbs as the anticancer agents,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 485042, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. V. Rao, P. Sujana, T. Vijayakanth, and M. D. Naidu, “Rhinacanthus nasutus—its protective role in oxidative stress and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 327–330, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. H. Liu, “Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, no. 12, pp. 3479S–3485S, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Le Marchand, “Cancer preventive effects of flavonoids—a review,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 296–301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. A. Murphy, B. K. Majeti, L. A. Barnes et al., “Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to tumor vasculature suppresses metastasis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 27, pp. 9343–9348, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C.-M. J. Hu, S. Aryal, and L. Zhang, “Nanoparticle-assisted combination therapies for effective cancer treatment,” Therapeutic Delivery, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 323–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. R. Pasupuleti, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad, R. A. Shiekh et al., “Biogenic silver nanoparticles using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract: synthesis, spectral analysis, and antimicrobial studies,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3355–3364, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Sukirtha, K. M. Priyanka, J. J. Antony et al., “Cytotoxic effect of Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Melia azedarach against in vitro HeLa cell lines and lymphoma mice model,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 273–279, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Daisy and K. Saipriya, “Biochemical analysis of Cassia fistula aqueous extract and phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as hypoglycemic treatment for diabetes mellitus,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 1189–1202, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Santhoshkumar, A. A. Rahuman, G. Rajakumar et al., “Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors,” Parasitology Research, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 693–702, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Prabhu, C. Arulvasu, G. Babu, R. Manikandan, and P. Srinivasan, “Biologically synthesized green silver nanoparticles from leaf extract of Vitex negundo L. induce growth-inhibitory effect on human colon cancer cell line HCT15,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 317–324, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Krishnaraj, P. Muthukumaran, R. Ramachandran, M. Balakumaran, and P. Kalaichelvan, “Acalypha indica Linn: Biogenic synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer cells,” Biotechnology Reports, vol. 4, pp. 42–49, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Jeyaraj, G. Sathishkumar, G. Sivanandhan et al., “Biogenic silver nanoparticles for cancer treatment: an experimental report,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 106, pp. 86–92, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Gurunathan, J. Raman, S. N. A. Malek, P. A. John, and S. Vikineswary, “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 4399–4413, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Elangovan, D. Elumalai, S. Anupriya, R. Shenbhagaraman, P. Kaleena, and K. Murugesan, “Phyto mediated biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Andrographis echioides and its bio-efficacy on anticancer and antibacterial activities,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 151, pp. 118–124, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. K. D. Arunachalam, L. B. Arun, S. K. Annamalai, and A. M. Arunachalam, “Potential anticancer properties of bioactive compounds of Gymnema sylvestre and its biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 10, pp. 31–41, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Nahar, R. Zahan, A. Mosaddik et al., “Antioxidant and antitumor activity of chloroform extract of Alangium salvifolium flowers,” Phytopharmacology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 123–134, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  32. T. Pecere, M. V. Gazzola, C. Mucignat et al., “Aloe-emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 2800–2804, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Kikuchi, K. Ishii, T. Noto et al., “Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem),” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 866–870, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Zidorn, K. Jöhrer, M. Ganzera et al., “Polyacetylenes from the apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 2518–2523, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. Xu, T. Li, J. Qiu et al., “Anti-proliferative activities of terpenoids isolated from Alisma orientalis and their structure-activity relationships,” Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 228–235, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. C. Wiart, Lead Compounds from Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Cancer, Academic Press, 2013.
  37. T.-S. Wu, A. G. Damu, C.-R. Su, and P.-C. Kuo, “Terpenoids of Aristolochia and their biological activities,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 594–624, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. E. Abd El-Wahab, D. A. Ghareeb, E. E. M. Sarhan, M. M. Abu-Serie, and M. A. El Demellawy, “In vitro biological assessment of berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine: antioxidants, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, article 218, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. U. Songsiang, T. Thongthoom, P. Zeekpudsa et al., “Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma of carbazoles and coumarins from Clausena harmandiana,” ScienceAsia, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Zhang, S.-P. Yang, C.-Q. Fan, J. Ding, and J.-M. Yue, “Daphniyunnines A-E, alkaloids from Daphniphyllum yunnanense,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 553–557, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Lei, J. Yu, H. Yu, and Z. Liao, “Composition, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Dictamnus dasycarpus,” Food Chemistry, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 1205–1209, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Khan, “Roles of Emblica officinalis in medicine—a review,” Botany Research International, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 218–228, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. K. Jose, G. Kuttan, and R. Kuttan, “Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 75, no. 2-3, pp. 65–69, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. T. H. Khan, I. Lampronti, D. Martello et al., “Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 187–192, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. F. Liu, “Isolation and identification of antitumor constituents of diterpenoids lactone in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud,” Zhong Yao Tong Bao, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 35–63, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  46. H. Itokawa, N. Totsuka, K. Nakahara, K. Takeya, J. P. Lepoittevin, and Y. Asakawa, “Antitumor principles from Ginkgo biloba L.,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 3016–3020, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. V. DeFeudis, V. Papadopoulos, and K. Drieu, “Ginkgo biloba extracts and cancer: a research area in its infancy,” Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 405–417, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. Pretner, H. Amri, W. Li et al., “Cancer-related overexpression of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and cytostatic anticancer effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761),” Anticancer Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 9–22, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. X. Li and C.-J. Chang, “Antitumor cytotoxicity and stereochemistry of polyketides from Goniothalamus amuyon,” Natural Product Letters, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 207–215, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. Sajuthi, “Extraction, fractionation, and in vitro biological tested on Gynura pseudochina (Linn.) DC.) as anticancer, second phase,” Buletin Kimia, vol. 1, no. 2, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  51. X. Ding, D. Bai, and J. Qian, “Novel cyclotides from Hedyotis biflora inhibit proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cell in vitro and in vivo,” Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1406–1413, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. Miao, N. Han, Z. Liu, D. Hu, and J. Yin, “Investigation of the chemical constituents and pharmacological functions of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance,” Journal of Traditional Medicines, vol. 6, no. 5, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  53. Z.-B. Li, J.-Y. Wang, B. Jiang, X.-L. Zhang, L.-J. An, and Y.-M. Bao, “Benzobijuglone, a novel cytotoxic compound from Juglans mandshurica, induced apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells,” Phytomedicine, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 846–852, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A.-J. Deng and H.-L. Qin, “Cytotoxic dihydrobenzophenanthridine alkaloids from the roots of Macleaya microcarpa,” Phytochemistry, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 816–822, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. Z. Matić, Z. Juranić, K. Šavikin, G. Zdunić, N. Nadvinski, and D. Goddevac, “Chamomile and marigold tea: chemical characterization and evaluation of anticancer activity,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 852–858, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Sichaem, S. Surapinit, P. Siripong, S. Khumkratok, J. Jong-Aramruang, and S. Tip-Pyang, “Two new cytotoxic isomeric indole alkaloids from the roots of Nauclea orientalis,” Fitoterapia, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 830–833, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. S. Moirangthem, N. C. Talukdar, U. Bora, N. Kasoju, and R. K. Das, “Differential effects of Oroxylum indicum bark extracts: antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and apoptotic study,” Cytotechnology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 83–95, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. C. L. Ee, C. M. Lim, M. Rahmani, K. Shaari, and C. F. J. Bong, “Pellitorine, a potential anti-cancer lead compound against HL60 and MCT-7 cell lines and microbial transformation of piperine from piper nigrum,” Molecules, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 2398–2404, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Liu, V. R. Yadev, B. B. Aggarwal, and M. G. Nair, “Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B,” Natural Product Communications, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1253–1257, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. Siripong, J. Yahuafai, K. Shimizu et al., “Antitumor activity of liposomal naphthoquinone esters isolated from Thai medicinal plant: rhinacanthus nasutus Kurz,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2279–2283, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. K. Son, S. J. Jung, J. H. Jung et al., “Anticancer constituents from the roots of Rubia cordifolia L.,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 213–216, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. Ghosh, M. Das Sarma, A. Patra, and B. Hazra, “Anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds isolated from Ventilagomadraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn.,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 1158–1166, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Takeya, T. Yamamiya, H. Morita, and H. Itokawa, “Two antitumour bicyclic hexapeptides from Rubia cordifolia,” Phytochemistry, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 613–615, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y.-G. Chen, Z.-C. Wu, Y.-P. Lv et al., “Triterpenoids from Schisandra henryi with cytotoxic effect on leukemia and Hela cells in vitro,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 912–916, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. W. G. Ko, T. H. Kang, S. J. Lee et al., “Polymethoxyflavonoids from Vitex rotundifolia inhibit proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 861–865, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K.-J. Jo, M.-Y. Yoon, M.-R. Lee, M.-R. Cha, and H.-R. Park, “The anticancer effect of extracts from Vitex rotundifolia on human colon carcinoma cell lines,” Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 228–232, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  67. L.-S. Gan, S.-P. Yang, Y. Wu, J. Ding, and J.-M. Yue, “Terpenoid indole alkaloids from Winchia calophylla,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 18–22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. J. M. Christina, D. G. Joseph, M. Packialakshmi et al., “Anticarcinogenic activity of Withania somnifera Dunal against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 93, no. 2-3, pp. 359–361, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. S. de Bono, S. Oudard, M. Ozguroglu et al., “Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9747, pp. 1147–1154, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. J. M. Atkinson, R. A. Falconer, D. R. Edwards et al., “Development of a novel tumor-targeted vascular disrupting agent activated by membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 17, pp. 6902–6912, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. G. Dark, S. A. Hill, V. E. Prise, G. M. Tozer, G. R. Pettit, and D. J. Chaplin, “Combretastatin A-4, an agent that displays potent and selective toxicity toward tumor vasculature,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1829–1834, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. K. Jung, M. Lee, D. Y. Lim et al., “Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tumor growth of human lung cancer cells by targeting both wild type and L858R/T790M Mutant EGFR,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 289, no. 52, pp. 35839–35848, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. V. Diéras, S. Limentani, G. Romieu et al., “Phase II multicenter study of larotaxel (XRP9881), a novel taxoid, in patients with metastatic breast cancer who previously received taxane-based therapy,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1255–1260, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. L. Risinger, F. J. Giles, and S. L. Mooberry, “Microtubule dynamics as a target in oncology,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 255–261, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. B. F. Issell, “The podophyllotoxin derivatives VP16-213 and VM26,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 2-3, pp. 73–80, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. N. Latruffe, D. Delmas, B. Jannin, M. C. Malki, P. Passilly-Degrace, and J.-P. Berlot, “Molecular analysis on the chemopreventive properties of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol microcomponent,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 755–760, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Maiti, M. Cuendet, V. L. Croy, D. C. Endringer, J. M. Pezzuto, and M. Cushman, “Synthesis and biological evaluation of (±)-abyssinone II and its analogues as aromatase inhibitors for chemoprevention of breast cancer,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2799–2806, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. C. Chamberlain, S. Grimm, S. Phuphanich et al., “A phase 2 trial of verubulin for recurrent glioblastoma: a prospective study by the brain tumor investigational consortium (BTIC),” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 335–343, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. F. Grossmann, H. Colman, W. A. Akerley et al., “Phase i trial of verubulin (MPC-6827) plus carboplatin in patients with relapsed glioblastoma multiforme,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 257–264, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. Mahal, M. Resch, R. Ficner, R. Schobert, B. Biersack, and T. Mueller, “Effects of the tumor-vasculature-disrupting agent verubulin and two heteroaryl analogues on cancer cells, endothelial cells, and blood vessels,” ChemMedChem, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 847–854, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. Delgado, L. Canobbio, F. Boccardo, F. Brema, and V. Fosser, “Phase-II pilot-study of navelbine in advanced breast-cancer,” in Navelbine (Vinorelbine): Update and New Trade, pp. 199–207, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  82. K. Huang, H. Ma, J. Liu et al., “Size-dependent localization and penetration of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in cancer cells, multicellular spheroids, and tumors in vivo,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 4483–4493, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L.-F. Qi, Z.-R. Xu, Y. Li, X. Jiang, and X.-Y. Han, “In vitro effects of chitosan nanoparticles on proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 cells,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 11, no. 33, pp. 5136–5141, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 662–668, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. B. Ankamwar, T. C. Lai, J. H. Huang et al., “Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using normal, glia and breast cancer cells,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 7, Article ID 075102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. Pan and S.-S. Feng, “Targeting and imaging cancer cells by folate-decorated, quantum dots (QDs)-loaded nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1176–1183, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, “Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity,” Langmuir, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 2–5, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. G. Wei, M. Yan, L. Ma, and H. Zhang, “The synthesis of highly water-dispersible and targeted CdS quantum dots and it is used for bioimaging by confocal microscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 288–292, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. R. Abbasalipourkabir, A. Salehzadeh, and R. Abdullah, “Antitumor activity of tamoxifen loaded solid lipid nanoparticles on induced mammary tumor gland in Sprague-Dawley rats,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 43, pp. 7337–7345, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. H. Çiftçi, M. Türk, U. Tamer, S. Karahan, and Y. Menemen, “Silver nanoparticles: cytotoxic, apoptotic, and necrotic effects on MCF-7 cells,” Turkish Journal of Biology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 573–581, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. A. J. Paul, B. K. Selvi, and N. Karmegam, “Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice,” Applied Nanoscience, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 937–944, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. P. R. R. Sre, M. Reka, R. Poovazhagi, M. A. Kumar, and K. Murugesan, “Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 135, pp. 1137–1144, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. U. K. Sukumar, B. Bhushan, P. Dubey, I. Matai, A. Sachdev, and G. Packirisamy, “Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy,” International Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 1, article 45, 17 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. B. V. V. Pardhasaradhi, M. Reddy, A. M. Ali, A. L. Kumari, and A. Khar, “Antitumour activity of Annona squamosa seed extracts is through the generation of free radicals and induction of apoptosis,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 167–172, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. Y. Chen, S.-S. Xu, J.-W. Chen et al., “Anti-tumor activity of Annona squamosa seeds extract containing annonaceous acetogenin compounds,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 462–466, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. B. Joy and P. Remani, “Antitumor constituents from Annona squamosa fruit pericarp,” Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 17, no. 2–7, pp. 345–355, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. T. Fleischauer, C. Poole, and L. Arab, “Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 1047–1052, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. H. Ishikawa, T. Saeki, T. Otani et al., “Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 816S–820S, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. Wilken, M. S. Veena, M. B. Wang, and E. S. Srivatsan, “Curcumin: a review of anti-cancer properties and therapeutic activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1–19, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. N. Dhillon, B. B. Aggarwal, R. A. Newman et al., “Phase II trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 14, pp. 4491–4499, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. E. A. Natelson, B. C. Giovanella, C. F. Verschraegen et al., “Phase I clinical and pharmacological studies of 20-(S)-camptothecin and 20-(S)-9-nitrocamptothecin as anticancer agents,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 803, pp. 224–230, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. V. Guarneri, M. V. Dieci, and P. Conte, “Enhancing intracellular taxane delivery: current role and perspectives of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced breast cancer,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 395–406, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. Y. Cui, X.-O. Shu, Y.-T. Gao, H. Cai, M.-H. Tao, and W. Zheng, “Association of ginseng use with survival and quality of life among breast cancer patients,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 163, no. 7, pp. 645–653, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. J.-H. Kim, Y. P. Chan, and S.-J. Lee, “Effects of sun ginseng on subjective quality of life in cancer patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 331–334, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. G. S. Kienle, F. Berrino, A. Büssing, E. Portalupi, S. Rosenzweig, and H. Kiene, “Mistletoe in cancer—a systematic review on controlled clinical trials,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 109–119, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. Y. Pan, A. Leifert, D. Ruau et al., “Gold nanoparticles of diameter 1.4 nm trigger necrosis by oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage,” Small, vol. 5, no. 18, pp. 2067–2076, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. G. Balasubramani, R. Ramkumar, N. Krishnaveni et al., “Structural characterization, antioxidant and anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract (decoction) of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 30, pp. 83–89, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. E. E. Abel, P. R. J. Poonga, and S. G. Panicker, “Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract,” Applied Nanoscience, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 121–129, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. K. Anand, R. M. Gengan, A. Phulukdaree, and A. Chuturgoon, “Agroforestry waste Moringa oleifera petals mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their anti-cancer and catalytic activity,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 21, pp. 1105–1111, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. P. Vinardell and M. Mitjans, “Antitumor activities of metal oxide nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1004–1021, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. T. K. Jain, M. A. Morales, S. K. Sahoo, D. L. Leslie-Pelecky, and V. Labhasetwar, “Iron oxide nanoparticles for sustained delivery of anticancer agents,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 194–205, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. Mahdavi, F. Namvar, M. B. Ahmad, and R. Mohamad, “Green biosynthesis and characterization of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using seaweed (Sargassum muticum) aqueous extract,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 5954–5964, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. P. Thevenot, J. Cho, D. Wavhal, R. B. Timmons, and L. Tang, “Surface chemistry influences cancer killing effect of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 226–236, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. Z. Hou, Y. Zhang, K. Deng et al., “UV-emitting upconversion-based TiO2 photosensitizing nanoplatform: near-infrared light mediated in vivo photodynamic therapy via mitochondria-involved apoptosis pathway,” ACS Nano, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2584–2599, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. M. Pešić, A. Podolski-Renić, S. Stojković et al., “Anti-cancer effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles and its intracellular redox activity,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 232, pp. 85–93, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. M. S. Wason, J. Colon, S. Das et al., “Sensitization of pancreatic cancer cells to radiation by cerium oxide nanoparticle-induced ROS production,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 558–569, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. K. Mittal, S. Kumar, and U. C. Banerjee, “Quercetin and gallic acid mediated synthesis of bimetallic (silver and selenium) nanoparticles and their antitumor and antimicrobial potential,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 431, pp. 194–199, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. S. M. Roopan, T. V. Surendra, G. Elango, and S. H. S. Kumar, “Biosynthetic trends and future aspects of bimetallic nanoparticles and its medicinal applications,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 5289–5300, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. P. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Zhang, and C. Cai, “Aptamer-guided silver–gold bimetallic nanostructures with highly active surface-enhanced Raman scattering for specific detection and near-infrared photothermal therapy of human breast cancer cells,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 18, pp. 7692–7699, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. A. A. Alshatwi, J. Athinarayanan, and V. S. Periasamy, “Green synthesis of bimetallic Au@Pt nanostructures and their application for proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in human cervical cancer cell,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, article 148, 9 pages, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  121. F. Alexis, E. Pridgen, L. K. Molnar, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Factors affecting the clearance and biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 505–515, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. A. L. van de Ven, P. Kim, O. Haley et al., “Rapid tumoritropic accumulation of systemically injected plateloid particles and their biodistribution,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 148–155, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. N. P. Truong, M. R. Whittaker, C. W. Mak, and T. P. Davis, “The importance of nanoparticle shape in cancer drug delivery,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 129–142, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. D. S. Spencer, A. S. Puranik, and N. A. Peppas, “Intelligent nanoparticles for advanced drug delivery in cancer treatment,” Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 84–92, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. N. Doshi and S. Mitragotri, “Needle-shaped polymeric particles induce transient disruption of cell membranes,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. S403–S410, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. K. M. El-Say, “Nanodiamond as a drug delivery system: applications and prospective,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 29–39, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  127. Y. Liu, Nanoparticle-based delivery vectors: design, preparation, characterization, cellular internalization and nuclear targeting [Ph.D. thesis], ProQuest, 2007.
  128. R. Arvizo, R. Bhattacharya, and P. Mukherjee, “Gold nanoparticles: opportunities and challenges in nanomedicine,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 753–763, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. C. Cheng, A. Porter, K. Muller et al., “Imaging carbon nanoparticles and related cytotoxicity,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 151, no. 1, Article ID 012030, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. R. Govender, A. Phulukdaree, R. M. Gengan, K. Anand, and A. A. Chuturgoon, Silver Nanoparticles of Albizia Adianthifolia: The Induction of Apoptosis in a Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Line, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2012.
  131. M. Z. Ahmad, S. Akhter, Z. Rahman et al., “Nanometric gold in cancer nanotechnology: current status and future prospect,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 634–651, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. V. Wilhelmi, U. Fischer, H. Weighardt et al., “Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce necrosis and apoptosis in macrophages in a p47phox- and Nrf2-independent manner,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, Article ID e65704, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. I. A. Siddiqui, V. Sanna, N. Ahmad, M. Sechi, and H. Mukhtar, “Resveratrol nanoformulation for cancer prevention and therapy,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1348, no. 1, pp. 20–31, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. N. Sozer and J. L. Kokini, “Nanotechnology and its applications in the food sector,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 82–89, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. A. N. Sahu, “Nanotechnology in herbal medicines and cosmetics,” International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 472–474, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. Q. Huang, H. Yu, and Q. Ru, “Bioavailability and delivery of nutraceuticals using nanotechnology,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. R50–R57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. K. Katti, N. Chanda, R. Shukla et al., “Green nanotechnology from cumin phytochemicals: generation of biocompatible gold nanoparticles,” International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Biomedicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. B39–B52, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. K. K. Jain, “Current status and future prospects of nanoneurology,” Journal of Nanoneuroscience, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 56–64, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. F. Odeh, H. Al-Jaber, and D. Khater, “Nanoflora—how nanotechnology enhanced the use of active phytochemicals,” in Application of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, InTech, 2014. View at Google Scholar