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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3806157, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3806157
Review Article

Getting to NO Alzheimer’s Disease: Neuroprotection versus Neurotoxicity Mediated by Nitric Oxide

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia

Received 3 July 2015; Accepted 16 August 2015

Academic Editor: Javier Egea

Copyright © 2016 Rachelle Balez and Lezanne Ooi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of neurons in the brain which leads to progressive memory loss and behavioral changes. To date, there are only limited medications for AD and no known cure. Nitric oxide (NO) has long been considered part of the neurotoxic insult caused by neuroinflammation in the Alzheimer’s brain. However, focusing on early developments, prior to the appearance of cognitive symptoms, is changing that perception. This has highlighted a compensatory, neuroprotective role for NO that protects synapses by increasing neuronal excitability. A potential mechanism for augmentation of excitability by NO is via modulation of voltage-gated potassium channel activity (Kv7 and Kv2). Identification of the ionic mechanisms and signaling pathways that mediate this protection is an important next step for the field. Harnessing the protective role of NO and related signaling pathways could provide a therapeutic avenue that prevents synapse loss early in disease.