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Figure 1: NRG-1 increases biosynthesis of active Cbl species in SH-SY5Y cells. (a) The general structure of Cbl species in which “X” represents various ligands linked to the cobalt atom, giving rise to six different Cbl species measured in SH-SY5Y cells. (b–g) The effects of NRG-1 on six intracellular Cbl species were measured, including OHCbl (b), GSCbl (c), SO3Cbl (d), CNCbl (e), AdoCbl (f), and MeCbl (g). Cells were treated for 1 hour with 1 nM NRG-1, 100 nM of the PI3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, or 1 nM NRG-1 and 100 nM wortmannin combined, . Data represent mean values ± SEM. Asterisks () indicate a significant difference () from control group. # indicates a significant difference () from NRG-1 treated group.