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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4013639, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4013639
Review Article

Role of Vanadium in Cellular and Molecular Immunology: Association with Immune-Related Inflammation and Pharmacotoxicology Mechanisms

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2Laboratory of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
3Department of Medicine, Laboratory of General Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
4Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
5Forensic Medical Service of Thessaloniki, Ministry of Justice, Transparency, and Human Rights, Dimokratias 1 Square, 54012 Thessaloniki, Greece

Received 31 December 2015; Accepted 13 March 2016

Academic Editor: Juan Llopis

Copyright © 2016 Olga Tsave et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Over the last decade, a diverse spectrum of vanadium compounds has arisen as anti-inflammatory therapeutic metallodrugs targeting various diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that select well-defined vanadium species are involved in many immune-driven molecular mechanisms that regulate and influence immune responses. In addition, advances in cell immunotherapy have relied on the use of metallodrugs to create a “safe,” highly regulated, environment for optimal control of immune response. Emerging findings include optimal regulation of B/T cell signaling and expression of immune suppressive or anti-inflammatory cytokines, critical for immune cell effector functions. Furthermore, in-depth perusals have explored NF-κB and Toll-like receptor signaling mechanisms in order to enhance adaptive immune responses and promote recruitment or conversion of inflammatory cells to immunodeficient tissues. Consequently, well-defined vanadium metallodrugs, poised to access and resensitize the immune microenvironment, interact with various biomolecular targets, such as B cells, T cells, interleukin markers, and transcription factors, thereby influencing and affecting immune signaling. A synthetically formulated and structure-based (bio)chemical reactivity account of vanadoforms emerges as a plausible strategy for designing drugs characterized by selectivity and specificity, with respect to the cellular molecular targets intimately linked to immune responses, thereby giving rise to a challenging field linked to the development of immune system vanadodrugs.