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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5681036, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5681036
Review Article

Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse

MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK

Received 15 May 2015; Accepted 28 June 2015

Academic Editor: Vittorio Calabrese

Copyright © 2016 Sophie A. Bradley and Joern R. Steinert. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD) which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s.