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Figure 1: Transduction of GST-TAT-SOD in vitro and in vivo. The transduction activity of the protein was analyzed by measuring the level of the transduced proteins in the cells by SOD activity (a and b) or visualization and quantification of the protein by FITC-labeled (c, d, and e). (a) Protein was added to culture media and incubated for various time intervals. (b) Various concentrations of protein were added to culture media and incubated for 3 h. (c) Visualization of GST-TAT-SOD transduced into cells. L-02 cells were treated with 2 kU/mL FITC-labeled GST-TAT-SOD fusion proteins and control FITC-labeled SOD for 3 h, and the transduced proteins were identified by fluorescence microscopy. (d) Quantification of the transduction of GST-TAT-SOD into cells. L-02 cells plated in a 24-well plate were treated with FITC-labeled protein, then harvested, and washed. The transduction activity of each protein was analyzed by measuring fluorescence intensity in the cells. The bars indicate the means ± SD (, compared with control group, , compared with wild SOD group, ). (e) Transduction of GST-TAT-SOD in vivo. FITC-labeled GST-TAT-SOD or SOD (0.5 mL, 2 kU/mL) was injected intraperitoneally into mice. The homogenates of the liver, spleen, lung, brain, and kidney were prepared and transduction efficiencies were analyzed by measuring fluorescence intensity of tissue homogenates from organs after 3 h. The bars indicate the means ± SD (, compared with control group, , , compared with wild SOD group, , ).