Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6439037, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6439037
Research Article

Oxidative Stress Assessment in Response to Ultraendurance Exercise: Thiols Redox Status and ROS Production according to Duration of a Competitive Race

1Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council (CNR), Via Fratelli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate, Italy
2Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council (CNR), Niguarda Ca’ Granda Hospital, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3Telematic University San Raffaele, Via F. Daverio 7, 20122 Milan, Italy

Received 21 April 2016; Revised 23 May 2016; Accepted 24 May 2016

Academic Editor: Steven McAnulty

Copyright © 2016 Alessandra Vezzoli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Fisher-Wellman and R. J. Bloomer, “Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history,” Dynamic Medicine, vol. 8, p. 1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. A. S. Veskoukis, M. G. Nikolaidis, A. Kyparos, and D. Kouretas, “Blood reflects tissue oxidative stress depending on biomarker and tissue studied,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1371–1374, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. G. Nikolaidis and A. Z. Jamurtas, “Blood as a reactive species generator and redox status regulator during exercise,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 490, no. 2, pp. 77–84, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. G. Nikolaidis, A. Kyparos, C. Spanou, V. Paschalis, A. A. Theodorou, and I. S. Vrabas, “Redox biology of exercise: an integrative and comparative consideration of some overlooked issues,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 215, no. 10, pp. 1615–1625, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Q. Schafer and G. R. Buettner, “Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1191–1212, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. P. Jones, J. L. Carlson, V. C. Mody Jr., J. Cai, M. J. Lynn, and P. Sternberg Jr., “Redox state of glutathione in human plasma,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 625–635, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Herrmann, “The importance of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for diseases: an overview,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 666–674, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. M. Rifkind, J. G. Mohanty, and E. Nagababu, “The pathophysiology of extracellular hemoglobin associated with enhanced oxidative reactions,” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 5, article 500, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. O. Laitano, K. K. Kalsi, J. Pearson, M. Lotlikar, A. Reischak-Oliveira, and J. González-Alonso, “Effects of graded exercise-induced dehydration and rehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative stress across the resting and exercising human leg,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 1937–1944, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Takebayashi, J. Chen, and A. Tai, “A method for evaluation of antioxidant activity based on inhibition of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 594, pp. 287–296, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. E. Turner, S. J. Bennett, J. A. Bosch, H. R. Griffiths, and S. Aldred, “Ultra-endurance exercise: unanswered questions in redox biology and immunology,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 989–995, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Sahlin, I. G. Shabalina, C. M. Mattsson et al., “Ultraendurance exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in isolated mitochondria from human skeletal muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 780–787, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. L. Wu, C.-C. Chiou, P.-Y. Chang, and J. T. Wu, “Urinary 8-OHdG: a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetics,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 339, no. 1-2, pp. 1–9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. A. Kesaniemi, E. J. Danforth, M. D. Jensen, P. G. Kopelman, P. Lefebvre, and B. A. Reeder, “Dose-response issues concerning physical activity and health: an evidence-based symposium,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. S351–S358, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. L. Knez, J. S. Coombes, and D. G. Jenkins, “Ultra-endurance exercise and oxidative damage implications for cardiovascular health,” Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 429–441, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Mastaloudis, S. W. Leonard, and M. G. Traber, “Oxidative stress in athletes during extreme endurance exercise,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 911–922, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. Radák, H. Ogonovszky, J. Dubecz et al., “Super-marathon race increases serum and urinary nitrotyrosine and carbonyl levels,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 726–730, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Mrakic-Sposta, M. Gussoni, M. Montorsi et al., “Training effects on ROS production determined by electron paramagnetic resonance in master swimmers,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2015, Article ID 804794, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Vezzoli, L. Pugliese, M. Marzorati, F. R. Serpiello, A. La Torre, and S. Porcelli, “Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 1, Article ID e87506, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. B. Reid, “Redox interventions to increase exercise performance,” Journal of Physiology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. C. Dellanoce, L. Cozzi, S. Zuddas, L. Pratali, and R. Accinni, “Determination of different forms of aminothiols in red blood cells without washing erythrocytes,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 327–331, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Mrakic-Sposta, M. Gussoni, M. Montorsi, S. Porcelli, and A. Vezzoli, “A quantitative method to monitor reactive oxygen species production by electron paramagnetic resonance in physiological and pathological conditions,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2014, Article ID 306179, 10 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Lamprecht, J. F. Greilberger, G. Schwaberger, P. Hofmann, and K. Oettl, “Single bouts of exercise affect albumin redox state and carbonyl groups on plasma protein of trained men in a workload-dependent manner,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1611–1617, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J.-S. Wang, T. Lee, and S.-E. Chow, “Role of exercise intensities in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-mediated redox status of monocyte in men,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 740–744, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. O. Neubauer, D. König, N. Kern, L. Nics, and K.-H. Wagner, “No indications of persistent oxidative stress in response to an ironman triathlon,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2119–2128, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. P. Skenderi, M. Tsironi, C. Lazaropoulou et al., “Changes in free radical generation and antioxidant capacity during ultramarathon foot race,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 159–165, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. K. Powers and M. J. Jackson, “Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1243–1276, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. C. Gomes, A. N. Silva, and M. R. Oliveira, “Oxidants, antioxidants, and the beneficial roles of exercise-induced production of reactive species,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2012, Article ID 756132, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. M. Herrmann, H. Schorr, R. Obeid et al., “Homocysteine increases during endurance exercise,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1518–1524, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. A. Smith, “Exercise, training and red blood cell turnover,” Sports Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 9–31, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Petibois and G. Déléris, “Erythrocyte adaptation to oxidative stress in endurance training,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 524–531, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. A. Pinho, M. E. Andrades, M. R. Oliveira et al., “Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise,” Cell Biology International, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 848–853, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Clarendon Press, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2007.
  34. K.-H. Wagner, S. Reichhold, and O. Neubauer, “Impact of endurance and ultraendurance exercise on DNA damage,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1229, no. 1, pp. 115–123, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. M. Kanter, L. A. Nolte, and J. O. Holloszy, “Effects of an antioxidant vitamin mixture on lipid peroxidation at rest and postexercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 965–969, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. Michailidis, A. Z. Jamurtas, M. G. Nikolaidis et al., “Sampling time is crucial for measurement of aerobic exercise-induced oxidative stress,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1107–1113, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. E. Turner, N. J. Hodges, J. A. Bosch, and S. Aldred, “Prolonged depletion of antioxidant capacity after ultraendurance exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1770–1776, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. J. Wadley, J. E. Turner, and S. Aldred, “Factors influencing post-exercise plasma protein carbonyl concentration,” Free Radical Research, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 375–384, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Il'yasova, P. Scarbrough, and I. Spasojevic, “Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 413, no. 19-20, pp. 1446–1453, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W. L. Knez, D. G. Jenkins, and J. S. Coombes, “Oxidative stress in half and full Ironman triathletes,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 283–288, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. C. Nieman, “Upper respiratory tract infections and exercise,” Thorax, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 1229–1231, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Mrakic-Sposta, M. Gussoni, M. Montorsi, S. Porcelli, and A. Vezzoli, “Assessment of a standardized ROS production profile in humans by electron paramagnetic resonance,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2012, Article ID 973927, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Finaud, G. Lac, and E. Filaire, “Oxidative stress: relationship with exercise and training,” Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 327–358, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus