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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6842568, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6842568
Review Article

Oxidative Stress-Mediated Skeletal Muscle Degeneration: Molecules, Mechanisms, and Therapies

1Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597
2NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597

Received 21 July 2015; Revised 8 October 2015; Accepted 8 October 2015

Academic Editor: Gabriele Saretzki

Copyright © 2016 Min Hee Choi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is a loss of balance between the production of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism and the mechanisms that clear these species to maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Increased oxidative stress has been associated with muscular dystrophy, and many studies have proposed mechanisms that bridge these two pathological conditions at the molecular level. In this review, the evidence indicating a causal role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various muscular dystrophies is revisited. In particular, the mediation of cellular redox status in dystrophic muscle by NF-κB pathway, autophagy, telomere shortening, and epigenetic regulation are discussed. Lastly, the current stance of targeting these pathways using antioxidant therapies in preclinical and clinical trials is examined.