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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7316492, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7316492
Review Article

Nrf2 and Notch Signaling in Lung Cancer: Near the Crossroad

Laboratory of Oncology, IRCCS “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza” Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy

Received 4 April 2016; Revised 8 July 2016; Accepted 20 September 2016

Academic Editor: Kum Kum Khanna

Copyright © 2016 Angelo Sparaneo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2) is a master regulator of the cell antioxidant response associated with tumor growth and resistance to cytotoxic treatments. In particular, Nrf2 induces upregulation of cytoprotective genes by interacting with the closely situated AREs (Antioxidant Response Elements) in response to endogenous or exogenous stress stimuli and takes part to several oncogenic signaling pathways. Among these, the crosstalk with Notch pathway has been shown to enhance cytoprotection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis, tissue organization by modulating cell proliferation kinetics, and stem cell self-renewal in several organs. The role of Notch and Nrf2 related pathways in tumorigenesis is highly variable and when they are both abnormally activated they can synergistically cause neoplastic proliferation by promoting cell survival, differentiation, invasion, and metastases. NFE2L2, KEAP1, and NOTCH genes family appear in the list of significantly mutated genes in tumors in both combined and individual sets, supporting the crucial role that the aberrant Nrf2-Notch crosstalk might have in cancerogenesis. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the alterations of Nrf2 and Notch pathways and their reciprocal transcriptional regulation throughout tumorigenesis and progression of lung tumors, supporting the potentiality of putative biomarkers and therapeutic targets.