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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7978219, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7978219
Research Article

Oral Exposure to Atrazine Induces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Homeostasis Disruption in Spleen of Mice

1Department of Toxicological Science, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150081, China
2Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150056, China
3Environmental Monitoring Centre of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150056, China

Received 17 March 2016; Revised 24 August 2016; Accepted 29 August 2016

Academic Editor: Swaran J. S. Flora

Copyright © 2016 Shuying Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The widely used herbicide atrazine (ATR) can cause many adverse effects including immunotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The current study investigated the role of oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis in ATR-induced immunotoxicity in mice. ATR at doses of 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight was administered to Balb/c mice daily for 21 days by oral gavage. The studies performed 24 hr after the final exposure showed that ATR could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the spleen of the mice, increase the level of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) in the host serum, and cause the depletion of reduced glutathione in the serum, each in a dose-related manner. In addition, DNA damage was observed in isolated splenocytes as evidenced by increase in DNA comet tail formation. ATR exposure also caused increases in intracellular Ca2+ within splenocytes. Moreover, ATR treatment led to increased expression of genes for some antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1 and Gpx1, as well as increased expression of NF-κB and Ref-1 proteins in the spleen. In conclusion, it appears that oxidative stress and disruptions in calcium homeostasis might play an important role in the induction of immunotoxicity in mice by ATR.