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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 8413032, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8413032
Review Article

The Tumorigenic Roles of the Cellular REDOX Regulatory Systems

Centre for Biomedical Research (CBMR), University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, Building 8, Room 2.22, 8055-139 Faro, Portugal

Received 7 June 2015; Accepted 10 August 2015

Academic Editor: Thomas Kietzmann

Copyright © 2016 Stéphanie Anaís Castaldo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The cellular REDOX regulatory systems play a central role in maintaining REDOX homeostasis that is crucial for cell integrity, survival, and proliferation. To date, a substantial amount of data has demonstrated that cancer cells typically undergo increasing oxidative stress as the tumor develops, upregulating these important antioxidant systems in order to survive, proliferate, and metastasize under these extreme oxidative stress conditions. Since a large number of chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the clinic rely on the induction of ROS overload or change of ROS quality to kill the tumor, the cancer cell REDOX adaptation represents a significant obstacle to conventional chemotherapy. In this review we will first examine the different factors that contribute to the enhanced oxidative stress generally observed within the tumor microenvironment. We will then make a comprehensive assessment of the current literature regarding the main antioxidant proteins and systems that have been shown to be positively associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance. Finally we will make an analysis of commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ROS. The current knowledge of cancer cell REDOX adaptation raises the issue of developing novel and more effective therapies for these tumors that are usually resistant to conventional ROS inducing chemotherapy.