Table 1: Chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used in the clinic capable of inducing ROS.

Drug nameTumor typeMechanism of action for ROS inductionReferences

Actinomycin DSarcomas; Wilms’ tumor; testicular; melanoma; neuroblastoma; germ cell; retinoblastoma; choriocarcinomaInhibition of Bcl-2[179]

BleomycinMelanoma; Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas; testicular; head and neck; cervical; malignant pleural effusionsFormation of Fe(II)-bleomycin-DNA complex that is oxidized by O2[185, 187]

BusulfanChronic myeloid leukemiaGSH depletion and NOX activation[182, 183]

CarmustineBrain; Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; melanoma; myelomaGSH depletion via inhibition of GR[169]

CisplatinOvarian; colon; testicular; germ cell; bladder; lung; head and neckIncreased expression of p47 subunit of NOX[17, 188]

DMATProstateInhibition of CK2 activity[173]

DoxorubicinHodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; leukemia; breast; gastric; neuroblastoma; ovarian; lung; soft tissue and bone sarcomas; thyroid; bladderp53-dependent transcription of cytochrome oxidase 2; FOXO3-dependent transcription of Noxa and BIM; quinone metabolism[190]

EtoposideLymphomas; leukemias; neuroblastoma; breast; lung; testicular; gastricFOXO3 dependent transcription of Noxa and BIM[188, 190]

5-FluorouracilGastric; colon; gynecological; breast; head and neck; lung; skinp53-dependent transcription of ROMO 1[188, 189]

GemcitabinePancreatic; lung; in combination with other drugs: breast, bladder, and ovarianActivation of AKT and ERK 1/2 which leads to upregulation of CXCR4[198]

Mitomycin CColon; breast; head and neck; bladder; cervical; gastric; pancreatic; liverInhibition of Bcl-2[180, 202]

PaclitaxelOvarian; breast; non-small cell lung carcinoma; Kaposi’s sarcoma Activation of Rac1 subunit of NOX; disruption of the mitochondrial membrane [177, 178]

TamoxifenBreastInhibition of CK2 activity[175]