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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 8505384, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8505384
Research Article

The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

1Department of Biology and Pharmaceutical Botany, Medical University of Lodz, Muszynskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
2Instituto de Investigação do Medicamento (iMed.ULisboa), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
3Center for Research in Biosciences & Health Technologies (CBIOS), Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
4Institute of General Food Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
5Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
6Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Mazowiecka 6/8, 92-215 Lodz, Poland
7Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Hollings Cancer Center, HCC-709, 86 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425, USA

Received 23 September 2016; Accepted 23 November 2016

Academic Editor: Chung-Yen Oliver Chen

Copyright © 2016 Ewa Skała et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.