Differential Mitochondrial Adaptation in Primary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from a Diabetic Rat Model
(a) Assessment of baseline mitochondrial morphology. Baseline perimeter per mitochondrion, total mitochondria fill of cytoplasm, and number of mitochondrial networks per cell were measured in fixed Wistar () and GK () SMCs using TOM 20 (mitochondria) and nitrotyrosine (cytoplasm). (b) Baseline comparison of mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy regulators (c) in Wistar () and GK () SMCs, passages 8–10. Signaling protein expression was measured with Western blot, 15–30 μg protein on an SDS-page gel, and data are normalized to β-actin and expressed as mean fold change from Wistar cells + SEM. Significance measured by Student’s -test, .