Figure 4: PI3K/Akt, Ca2+ dynamics, and ERS following intense exercise/Tg treatment and/or quercetin preconditioning. Hepatic PI3K (a and b) and Akt (a and c) protein levels, the Ca2+ concentration (d) in the ER, the GRP78 protein level (e and f) in mouse primary hepatocytes, and the amounts of IL-6 (g) and TNF-α (h) released from mouse primary hepatocytes into the culture medium were assessed. The data are presented as the mean ± SD ( for both the Ca2+ concentration determinations and ELISA, for others). Significant differences are indicated by different letters. A: versus normal control (Ct); B: versus Tg; C: versus Qu + Tg: quercetin (100 μM) plus Tg; Qu + Tg + LY: quercetin + Tg + LY294002 (30 nM).