Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin for the Treatment of Brain Tumors
Cancer pathway targets affected by curcumin. When the listed targets have multiple contributions to tumorigenesis (e.g., NF-κB), they are only placed under one category. Figure modified from Davis et al. 2003 . As permitted by Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 license and BJC OPEN initiative. ABCG2: ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2; AKT: protein kinase B; AP-1: activator protein 1; BAK: Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer; BAX: Bcl-2-like protein 4; Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma 2; Bcl-xL: B-cell lymphoma-extra large; caspase: cysteine-aspartic protease; CD105: endoglin; CD31: platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1); CDC: cell division cycle; CDK: cyclin-dependent kinase; CDKI: cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; CHK1: checkpoint kinase 1; c-Myc: v-Myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog; COX-2: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2; CXCR-4: C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; EGR-1: early growth response protein 1; ERCC-1: excision repair cross-complementation group 1; ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinases; FGF: fibroblast growth factor; GLI1: GLI family zinc finger 1; HDAC: histone deacetylases; HIF1A: hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit; hTERT: telomerase reverse transcriptase; ICAM-1: intercellular adhesion molecule 1; IL: interleukin; JAK: Janus kinase; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinases; MMP: matrix metalloproteinases; MRP: multidrug resistance protein; mTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin; NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; Nrf2: nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) like 2; PI3K: phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase; PTCH1: patched 1; SAC: spindle assembly checkpoint; SHH: sonic hedgehog; Snail: zinc finger protein SNAI1; STAT-3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; TIMP: tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; uPA: urokinase; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.
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