Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Overview of the Role of Vanillin on Redox Status and Cancer Development

Table 1

Summary of the main molecular targets of vanillin.

Biological processMolecular target

Cell proliferation and cell cycleAkt↓, AP-1↓, ATM↓, aurora kinase B↓, calcyclin↓, Chk2↓, CTGF, cyclin A2↓, cyclin B↓, cyclin D1↓, ERK↓, H2A.X↓, INSIG1↓, IκB-α↓, JNK↓, JUND↓, MAP2K2↓, MARK4↓, MMP-9↓, NF-κB↓, p38↓, p65↓, PCNA↓, PI3K↓, polo-like kinase 1↓, S6RP↓, survivin↓, TGFB1I1↓, β-catenin↑, FOS↑

DNA damage, oxidative, and stress responsesCLK2↑, DDIT4↑, GCLC↑, GCLM↑, HMOX1↑, HSPA1B↑, PMS2↑, SLC7A11↑, TRIM16↑, UGP2↑, XRCC2↑, DNA-PK↓, DNMT3B↓, DUSP6↓, FGFR2↓, FZD2↓, NHEJ↓, PPP1R10↓, SLC35D2↓, UNG2↓

Apoptosisp21↑, p53↑

Invasion and metastasisMMP-9↓, PI3K↓

Akt, protein kinase B; AP-1, activator protein 1; ATM, ataxia telangiectasia mutated; Chk2, serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2; CLK2, CDC-like kinase 2; CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; DDIT4, damage-inducible transcript 4; DNA-PK, DNA-protein kinase; DNMT3B, DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta; DUSP6, dual specificity phosphatase 6; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase; FGFR2, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2; FZD2, frizzled homolog 2 (Drosophila); GCLC, glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit; GCLM, glutamate-cysteine ligase, modifier subunit; H2A.X, histone 2A family member X; HMOX1, heme oxygenase (decycling) 1; HSPA1B, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1B; INSIG1, insulin induced gene 1; IκB-α, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha; JNK, c-jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase; JUND, jun D proto-oncogene; MAP2K2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2; MARK4, MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase 9; NF-κB, factor nuclear kappa B; NHEJ, non-homologous DNA end-joining; p21, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1; p38, p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase; p53, tumor suppressor protein 53; p65, transcription factor p65; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PMS2, mismatch repair endonuclease; PPP1R10, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 10; S6RP, S6 ribosomal protein; SLC35D2, solute carrier family 35, member D2; SLC7A11, solute carrier family 7; TGFB1I1, transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1; TRIM16, tripartite motif-containing 16; UGP2, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2; UNG2, uracil-DNA glycosylase 2; XRCC2, DNA repair protein.