Table 3: Carcinogenic role of carbonyl compounds.

Diseases/genotoxicitySpeciesCarbonyl associationReferences

Colitis-associated colorectal neoplasms MiceCoupled with high carbonyl levels, for example, malondialdehyde[19, 153]

Stomach hyperplasia, squamous papilloma, and carcinomaRats2,4-Hexadienal exposure[73]

Precancerous gastritis and gastric cancerHumansHigh serum malondialdehyde levels [154, 155]

Colorectal cancerHumansHigh serum lipid peroxide levels [156]

Colon and gastric cancersHumansAcetaldehyde from alcohol[69, 70]

Colorectal adenocarcinomaHumansHigh protein carbonyl levels[157]

Precancerous colorectal adenopolyps HumansHigh protein carbonyl levels[158]

Colorectal cancer HumansHigh lipid peroxide levels in tissues[159161]

GenotoxicityHumansHigh carbonyl DNA adduct levels in tissues[58, 162, 163]

GenotoxicityCell lines/in vitro studiesProduction of carbonyl DNA adducts [164167]