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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1026268, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1026268
Research Article

A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

1Section of Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa and Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2National Research Council, Institute of Biology and Agricultural Biotechnology (IBBA), Pisa Unit, Research Area of Pisa, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Vincenzo Longo

Received 23 November 2016; Revised 8 February 2017; Accepted 20 February 2017; Published 13 March 2017

Academic Editor: Grant N. Pierce

Copyright © 2017 Laura Giusti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation.