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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 1273042, 10 pages
Review Article

Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein as Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Diseases

1Department Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow 125315, Russia
3Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 20138 Milan, Italy
4Federal Scientific Clinical Center for Resuscitation and Rehabilitation, 14-3 Solyanka Street, Moscow 109240, Russia
5Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovation Center, Moscow 121609, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to Veronika A. Myasoedova; ti.mfcc@avodeosaym.akinorev

Received 10 February 2017; Accepted 12 April 2017; Published 9 May 2017

Academic Editor: Manuela Curcio

Copyright © 2017 Ekaterina A. Ivanova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. LDL consists of several subclasses of particles with different sizes and densities, including large buoyant (lb) and intermediate and small dense (sd) LDLs. It has been well documented that sdLDL has a greater atherogenic potential than that of other LDL subfractions and that sdLDL cholesterol (sdLDL-C) proportion is a better marker for prediction of cardiovascular disease than that of total LDL-C. Circulating sdLDL readily undergoes multiple atherogenic modifications in blood plasma, such as desialylation, glycation, and oxidation, that further increase its atherogenicity. Modified sdLDL is a potent inductor of inflammatory processes associated with cardiovascular disease. Several laboratory methods have been developed for separation of LDL subclasses, and the results obtained by different methods can not be directly compared in most cases. Recently, the development of homogeneous assays facilitated the LDL subfraction analysis making possible large clinical studies evaluating the significance of sdLDL in the development of cardiovascular disease. Further studies are needed to establish guidelines for sdLDL evaluation and correction in clinical practice.