Figure 5: Effect of MFE on EC-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease in HepG2 cells. (a) Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of MFE (0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 2 mg/mL) for 24 h and then incubated with EC for another 24 h. After that, cells were collected and incubated with 10 μM of Rh123 at 37°C for 30 min and then washed with PBS and evaluated by fluorescence microscope. (b) The quantitative data of panel (a) and results were expressed as mean Rh123 fluorescence intensity ± standard deviations; different letters represent significant difference (). (c) Cells were pretreated with 1 mg/mL or 2 mg/mL of MFE and then incubated with EC for 24 h, followed by incubation with 10 μM of Rh123, and after that, MMP was analysed by flow cytometry. Data represent similar results from three independent experiments. EC, ethyl carbamate; MFE, mulberry fruit extract; Rh123, rhodamine 123.