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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1930261, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1930261
Review Article

Oxidative Stress in Pancreatic Beta Cell Regeneration

Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Hongjun Wang

Received 28 April 2017; Accepted 28 June 2017; Published 3 August 2017

Academic Editor: Marina Sokovic

Copyright © 2017 Jingjing Wang and Hongjun Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pancreatic β cell neogenesis and proliferation during the neonatal period are critical for the generation of sufficient pancreatic β cell mass/reserve and have a profound impact on long-term protection against type 2 diabetes (T2D). Oxidative stress plays an important role in β cell neogenesis, proliferation, and survival under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Pancreatic β cells are extremely susceptible to oxidative stress due to a high endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a low expression of antioxidative enzymes. In this review, we summarize studies describing the critical roles and the mechanisms of how oxidative stress impacts β cell neogenesis and proliferation. In addition, the effects of antioxidant supplements on reduction of oxidative stress and increase of β cell proliferation are discussed. Exploring the roles and the potential therapeutic effects of antioxidants in the process of β cell regeneration would provide novel perspectives to preserve and/or expand pancreatic β cell mass for the treatment of T2D.