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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 2359389, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2359389
Research Article

Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats

1Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Prin. K. M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Jote Joy Building, Rambhau Salgaonkar Marg, Cuffe Parade, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India
2Department of Pathology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India
3Department of Pharmacology, SPP School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM’s NMIMS, Mumbai, India
4Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE

Correspondence should be addressed to Vandana Panda and Shreesh Kumar Ojha

Received 11 April 2017; Accepted 10 May 2017; Published 16 July 2017

Academic Editor: Janusz Gebicki

Copyright © 2017 Vandana Panda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20% w/v) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.