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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 3165396, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3165396
Review Article

Impact of Aging and Exercise on Mitochondrial Quality Control in Skeletal Muscle

1Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3
2School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3

Correspondence should be addressed to David A. Hood; ac.ukroy@doohd

Received 31 March 2017; Accepted 3 May 2017; Published 1 June 2017

Academic Editor: Moh H. Malek

Copyright © 2017 Yuho Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mitochondria are characterized by its pivotal roles in managing energy production, reactive oxygen species, and calcium, whose aging-related structural and functional deteriorations are observed in aging muscle. Although it is still unclear how aging alters mitochondrial quality and quantity in skeletal muscle, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamic controls has been suggested as key players for that. In this paper, we summarize current understandings on how aging regulates muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, while focusing on transcriptional regulations including PGC-1α, AMPK, p53, mtDNA, and Tfam. Further, we review current findings on the muscle mitochondrial dynamic systems in aging muscle: fusion/fission, autophagy/mitophagy, and protein import. Next, we also discuss how endurance and resistance exercises impact on the mitochondrial quality controls in aging muscle, suggesting possible effective exercise strategies to improve/maintain mitochondrial health.