Figure 1: Cancer cachexia-induced inflammation regulates mitochondria. Chronic inflammation during cancer cachexia is associated with increased circulatory proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β. Chronic inflammation through these cytokines has been demonstrated to decrease mitochondrial biogenesis through decreased activation of PGC-1a, NRF-1, and Sirt-1. Increased autophagy is apparent in cachectic muscle through inducing LC3B, Beclin-1, p62, Atg 5, and Bnip3 and dysregulating dynamics shown by increased FIS-1 and Drp-1 and decreased MFN-1, MFN-2, and OPA-1. These factors contribute to decreased mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis. The figure was made with Servier Medical Art (