Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2017 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Disrupted Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Dynamics, Mitophagy, and Biogenesis during Cancer Cachexia: A Role for Inflammation

Figure 1

Cancer cachexia-induced inflammation regulates mitochondria. Chronic inflammation during cancer cachexia is associated with increased circulatory proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β. Chronic inflammation through these cytokines has been demonstrated to decrease mitochondrial biogenesis through decreased activation of PGC-1a, NRF-1, and Sirt-1. Increased autophagy is apparent in cachectic muscle through inducing LC3B, Beclin-1, p62, Atg 5, and Bnip3 and dysregulating dynamics shown by increased FIS-1 and Drp-1 and decreased MFN-1, MFN-2, and OPA-1. These factors contribute to decreased mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis. The figure was made with Servier Medical Art (http://www.servier.com/Powerpoint-image-bank).

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