Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3494867, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3494867
Review Article

Oxidative Stress in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis: A Current Review of the Literature

1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
2Clinic of Nephrology and Hypertension, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Vassilios Liakopoulos; rg.teneto@lupokail

Received 14 August 2017; Revised 15 November 2017; Accepted 11 December 2017; Published 27 December 2017

Academic Editor: Janusz Gebicki

Copyright © 2017 Vassilios Liakopoulos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Hasselwander and I. S. Young, “Oxidative stress in chronic renal failure,” Free Radical Research, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Locatelli, B. Canaud, K. U. Eckardt, P. Stenvinkel, C. Wanner, and C. Zoccali, “Oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease: an emerging threat to patient outcome,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1272–1280, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. K. Frenkel, Z. Zhong, H. Wei et al., “Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of DNA oxidized in vitro and in vivo,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 126–136, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Himmelfarb, “Innovation in the treatment of uremia: proceedings from the cleveland clinic workshop: uremic toxicity, oxidative stress, and hemodialysis as renal replacement therapy,” Seminars in Dialysis, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 636–643, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. E. Stigant and J. M. Bargman, “What’s new in peritoneal dialysis: biocompatibility and continuous flow peritoneal dialysis,” Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 597–602, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. T. Kuo, H. W. Chen, H. H. Hsiao, and H. C. Chen, “Heat shock response protects human peritoneal mesothelial cells from dialysate-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1799–1809, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Breborowicz, “Free radicals in peritoneal dialysis: agents of damage?” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 194–198, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. Y. Huh, E. Y. Seo, H. B. Lee, and H. Ha, “Glucose-based peritoneal dialysis solution suppresses adiponectin synthesis through oxidative stress in an experimental model of peritoneal dialysis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Vostalova, A. Galandakova, P. Strebl, and J. Zadrazil, “Oxidative stress in patients on regular hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis,” Vnitřní Lékařství, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 466–472, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Y. Wang, M. Wang, J. Woo et al., “Inflammation, residual kidney function, and cardiac hypertrophy are interrelated and combine adversely to enhance mortality and cardiovascular death risk of peritoneal dialysis patients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 2186–2194, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Witowski, N. Topley, A. Jorres, T. Liberek, G. A. Coles, and J. D. Williams, “Effect of lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on human peritoneal mesothelial cell interleukin-6 and prostaglandin synthesis,” Kidney International, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 282–293, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. F. Serre, C. Marie, G. Beaujon, G. Betail, J. M. Cavaillon, and P. Deteix, “Variations of cytokine levels and production in CAPD patients,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 614–621, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Combet, T. Miyata, P. Moulin, D. Pouthier, E. Goffin, and O. Devuyst, “Vascular proliferation and enhanced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human peritoneum exposed to long-term peritoneal dialysis,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 717–728, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  14. T. Miyata, K. Kurokawa, and C. Van Ypersele de Strihou, “Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products: role of reactive carbonyl compounds generated during carbohydrate and lipid metabolism,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1744–1752, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. Boudouris, I. I. Verginadis, Y. V. Simos et al., “Oxidative stress in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and the significant role of vitamin C and E supplementation,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1137–1144, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Kocak, S. Gumuslu, C. Ermis et al., “Oxidative stress and asymmetric dimethylarginine is independently associated with carotid intima media thickness in peritoneal dialysis patients,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 91–96, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. J. Schmidt, S. Yokota, T. S. Tracy, M. I. Sorkin, and C. Baylis, “Nitric oxide production is low in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 276, no. 5, Part 2, pp. F794–F797, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Terawaki, Y. Matsuyama, S. Era et al., “Elevated oxidative stress measured as albumin redox state in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients correlates with small uraemic solutes,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 968, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Canestrari, U. Buoncristiani, F. Galli et al., “Redox state, antioxidative activity and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes and plasma of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 234, no. 1-2, pp. 127–136, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Zima, S. Štípek, J. Crkovská et al., “Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in CAPD patients,” Renal Failure, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 113–119, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. F. C. Eraldemir, D. Ozsoy, S. Bek, H. Kir, and E. Dervisoglu, “The relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, oxidative and nitrosative stress and depressive symptoms: a study on peritoneal dialysis,” Renal Failure, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 722–726, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Nourooz-Zadeh, “Effect of dialysis on oxidative stress in uraemia,” Redox Report, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 17–22, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Uzum, O. Toprak, M. K. Gumustas, S. Ciftci, and S. Sen, “Effect of vitamin E therapy on oxidative stress and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in patients on peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 739–745, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  24. I. Sundl, J. M. Roob, A. Meinitzer et al., “Antioxidant status of patients on peritoneal dialysis: associations with inflammation and glycoxidative stress,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 89–101, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. C. Tarng, T. Wen Chen, T. P. Huang, C. L. Chen, T. Y. Liu, and Y. H. Wei, “Increased oxidative damage to peripheral blood leukocyte DNA in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1321–1330, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Zwolinska, W. Grzeszczak, M. Szczepanska, I. Makulska, K. Kilis-Pstrusinska, and K. Szprynger, “Oxidative stress in children on peritoneal dialysis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 171–177, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  27. L. Gotloib, “Mechanisms of cell death during peritoneal dialysis. A role for osmotic and oxidative stress,” Contributions to Nephrology, vol. 163, pp. 35–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Ueda, T. Miyata, E. Goffin et al., “Effect of dwell time on carbonyl stress using icodextrin and amino acid peritoneal dialysis fluids,” Kidney International, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 2518–2524, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Gastaldello, C. Husson, J. P. Dondeyne, J. L. Vanherweghem, and C. Tielemans, “Cytotoxicity of mononuclear cells as induced by peritoneal dialysis fluids: insight into mechanisms that regulate osmotic stress-related apoptosis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 655–666, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. Gotloib, V. Wajsbrot, and A. Shostak, “Mesothelial dysplastic changes and lipid peroxidation induced by 7.5% icodextrin,” Nephron, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 142–155, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Ishibashi, T. Sugimoto, Y. Ichikawa et al., “Glucose dialysate induces mitochondrial DNA damage in peritoneal mesothelial cells,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  32. Y. L. Kim, J. H. Cho, J. Y. Choi, C. D. Kim, and S. H. Park, “Systemic and local impact of glucose and glucose degradation products in peritoneal dialysis solution,” Journal of Renal Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 218–222, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Y. Hung, S. Y. Liu, T. C. Yang, T. L. Liao, and S. H. Kao, “High-dialysate-glucose-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human peritoneal mesothelial cells,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2014, Article ID 642793, 12 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. X. Du, K. Stockklauser-Färber, and P. Rösen, “Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates, activation of NF-κB, and induction of apoptosis in human endothelial cells by glucose: role of nitric oxide synthase?” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 27, no. 7-8, pp. 752–763, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Xiang, M. Yang, C. Zhou, J. Liu, W. Li, and Z. Qian, “Crocetin prevents AGEs-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 268–274, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. P. Catalan, B. Santamaría, A. N. A. Reyero, A. Ortiz, J. Egido, and A. Ortiz, “3,4-di-deoxyglucosone-3-ene promotes leukocyte apoptosis,” Kidney International, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 1303–1311, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Ha and H. B. Lee, “Effect of high glucose on peritoneal mesothelial cell biology,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 20, Supplement 2, pp. S15–S18, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Mortier, D. Faict, C. G. Schalkwijk, N. H. Lameire, and A. N. S. De Vriese, “Long-term exposure to new peritoneal dialysis solutions: effects on the peritoneal membrane,” Kidney International, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 1257–1265, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C.-C. Szeto, K.-M. Chow, C. W.-K. Lam et al., “Clinical biocompatibility of a neutral peritoneal dialysis solution with minimal glucose-degradation products—a 1-year randomized control trial,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 552–559, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. C. Samouilidou, A. P. Karpouza, V. Kostopoulos et al., “Lipid abnormalities and oxidized LDL in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis,” Renal Failure, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Castoldi, L. Antolini, C. Bombardi et al., “Oxidative stress biomarkers and chromogranin a in uremic patients: effects of dialytic treatment,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 18, pp. 1387–1392, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. V. Filiopoulos, D. Hadjiyannakos, L. Takouli, P. Metaxaki, V. Sideris, and D. Vlassopoulos, “Inflammation and oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 872–882, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  43. P. Ahmadpoor, E. Eftekhar, J. Nourooz-Zadeh, H. Servat, K. Makhdoomi, and A. Ghafari, “Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in patients on maintenance dialysis,” Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  44. K. Mekki, W. Taleb, N. Bouzidi, A. Kaddous, and M. Bouchenak, “Effect of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis on redox status in chronic renal failure patients: a comparative study,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 93, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. I. Mehmetoglu, F. H. Yerlikaya, S. Kurban, S. S. Erdem, and Z. Tonbul, “Oxidative stress markers in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, including coenzyme Q10 and ischemia-modified albumin,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 226–232, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  46. A. Al-Hweish, S. S. Sultan, K. Mogazi, and M. Y. Elsammak, “Plasma myeloperoxidase, NT-proBNP, and troponin-I in patients on CAPD compared with those on regular hemodialysis,” Hemodialysis International, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 308–315, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. E. Taylor, N. Scott, A. Bridges, I. S. Henderson, W. K. Stewart, and J. J. Belch, “Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in continuous ambulatory dialysis patients,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 252–256, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  48. L. T. McGrath, A. F. Douglas, E. McClean et al., “Oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in patients undergoing regular dialysis,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 235, no. 2, pp. 179–188, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Agalou, N. Ahmed, A. Dawnay, and P. J. Thornalley, “Removal of advanced glycation end products in clinical renal failure by peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1394–1396, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. J. T. Kielstein, R. H. Boger, S. M. Bode-Boger et al., “Asymmetric dimethylarginine plasma concentrations differ in patients with end-stage renal disease: relationship to treatment method and atherosclerotic disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 594–600, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  51. P. S. Lim, Y. M. Chang, L. M. Thien et al., “8-iso-prostaglandin F2α as a useful clinical biomarker of oxidative stress in ESRD patients,” Blood Purification, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 537–542, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. J. Puchades, G. Saez, M. C. Munoz et al., “Study of oxidative stress in patients with advanced renal disease and undergoing either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 80, no. 09, pp. 177–186, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Lucchi, S. Bergamini, A. Iannone et al., “Erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress in chronic renal failure patients under different substitutive treatments,” Artificial Organs, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Usberti, G. M. Gerardi, R. M. Gazzotti et al., “Oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in dialyzed patients,” Nephron, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Sela, R. Shurtz-Swirski, M. Cohen-Mazor et al., “Primed peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocyte: a culprit underlying chronic low-grade inflammation and systemic oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 2431–2438, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Morimoto, K. Nakao, K. Fukuoka et al., “Long-term use of vitamin E-coated polysulfone membrane reduces oxidative stress markers in haemodialysis patients,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2775–2782, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Pawlak, D. Pawlak, and M. Mysliwiec, “Impaired renal function and duration of dialysis therapy are associated with oxidative stress and proatherogenic cytokine levels in patients with end-stage renal disease,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 1-2, pp. 81–85, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. H. Kayabasi, D. Sit, A. E. Atay, Z. Yilmaz, A. K. Kadiroglu, and M. E. Yilmaz, “Parameters of oxidative stress and echocardiographic indexes in patients on dialysis therapy,” Renal Failure, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 328–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. Yonova, I. Trendafilov, V. Papazov, I. Stanchev, R. Zidarov, and S. Antonov, “Comparative study of oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients,” Hippokratia, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 170–172, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  60. C.-H. Guoa, C.-L. Wangb, P.-C. Chen, and T.-C. Yang, “Linkage of some trace elements, peripheral blood lymphocytes, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients undergoing either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 583–591, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Q. Zhou, S. Wu, J. Jiang et al., “Accumulation of circulating advanced oxidation protein products is an independent risk factor for ischaemic heart disease in maintenance haemodialysis patients,” Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 642–649, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Marques de Mattos, L. V. Marino, P. P. Ovidio, A. A. Jordao, C. C. Almeida, and P. G. Chiarello, “Protein oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in dialysis patients,” Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 68–74, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Marques de Mattos, A. Afonso Jordão, J. Abrão Cardeal da Costa, and P. Garcia Chiarello, “Study of protein oxidative stress, antioxidant vitamins and inflammation in patients undergoing either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis,” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol. 84, no. 5-6, pp. 261–268, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. Capusa, I. Stoian, E. Rus, D. Lixandru, C. Barbulescu, and G. Mircescu, “Does dialysis modality influence the oxidative stress of uremic patients?” Kidney & Blood Pressure Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 220–225, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Z. Mitrogianni, A. Barbouti, D. Galaris, and K. C. Siamopoulos, “Oxidative modification of albumin in predialysis, hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis patients,” Nephron Clinical Practice, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. c234–c240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. Donate, A. Herreros, E. Martinez et al., “Protein oxidative stress in dialysis patients,” Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis, vol. 18, pp. 15–17, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  67. H. Xu, M. Watanabe, A. R. Qureshi et al., “Oxidative DNA damage and mortality in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 206–215, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. A. Ross, L. C. Koo, and J. B. Moberly, “Low whole blood and erythrocyte levels of glutathione in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 489–494, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. F. Takayama, S. Tsutsui, M. Horie, K. Shimokata, and T. Niwa, “Glutathionyl hemoglobin in uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Kidney International, vol. 78, pp. S155–S158, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. J. Stępniewska, B. Dołęgowska, E. Cecerska-Heryć et al., “The activity of antioxidant enzymes in blood platelets in different types of renal replacement therapy: a cross-sectional study,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 593–599, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. T. Zima, O. Mestek, K. Nĕmecek et al., “Trace elements in hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients,” Blood Purification, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 253–260, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. C. Pastor, C. Sierra, J. Bonal, and J. Teixido, “Serum and erythrocyte tocopherol in uremic patients: effect of hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 238–243, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. H. De Rojas and M. C. M. Mateo, “Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in patients undergoing hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Renal Failure, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 937–946, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. P. C. Fortes, P. H. Versari, A. E. Stinghen, and R. Pecoits-Filho, “Controlling inflammation in peritoneal dialysis: the role of pd-related factors as potential intervention targets,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 27, Supplement 2, pp. S76–S81, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  75. R. Pecoits-Filho, M. J. Carvalho, P. Stenvinkel, B. Lindholm, and O. Heimburger, “Systemic and intraperitoneal interleukin-6 system during the first year of peritoneal dialysis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 53–63, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  76. A. Borazan, H. Ustün, Y. Ustundag et al., “The effects of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and C-reactive-protein levels,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 201–204, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. I. Nakanishi, A. Moutabarrik, N. Okada et al., “Interleukin-8 in chronic renal failure and dialysis patients,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1435–1442, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. S. Snaedal, A. R. Qureshi, S. H. Lund et al., “Dialysis modality and nutritional status are associated with variability of inflammatory markers,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1320–1327, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. Jiang, P. Chen, J. Chen et al., “Accumulation of tissue advanced glycation end products correlated with glucose exposure dose and associated with cardiovascular morbidity in patients on peritoneal dialysis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 224, no. 1, pp. 187–194, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Kaya, E. Ari, H. Demir et al., “Accelerated atherosclerosis in haemodialysis patients; correlation of endothelial function with oxidative DNA damage,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1164–1169, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. G. Fassett, R. Driver, H. Healy et al., “Comparison of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and arterial stiffness between incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients – an observational study,” BMC Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. Garcia-Lopez, J. J. Carrero, M. E. Suliman, B. Lindholm, and P. Stenvinkel, “Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 27, Supplement 2, pp. S205–S209, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  83. H. MC, M. Shi, J. Zhang et al., “Klotho deficiency causes vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 124–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. O. HJ, B. Y. Nam, M. J. Lee et al., “Decreased circulating klotho levels in patients undergoing dialysis and relationship to oxidative stress and inflammation,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. M. Cueto-Manzano, E. Rojas-Campos, H. R. Martínez-Ramírez et al., “Can the inflammation markers of patients with high peritoneal permeability on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis be reduced on nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis?” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 341–348, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  86. A. I. Gunal, H. Celiker, B. Ustundag, N. Akpolat, A. Dogukan, and F. Akcicek, “The effect of oxidative stress inhibition with trimetazidine on the peritoneal alterations induced by hypertonic peritoneal dialysis solution,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 225–230, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  87. K. Honda, K. Nitta, S. Horita, W. Yumura, H. Nihei, R. Nagai et al., “Accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the peritoneal vasculature of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with low ultra-filtration,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1541–1549, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Y. Yamaji, Y. Nakazato, N. Oshima, M. Hayashi, and T. Saruta, “Oxidative stress induced by iron released from transferrin in low pH peritoneal dialysis solution,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2592–2597, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. Mochizuki, A. Takayama, T. Sasaki et al., “Direct measurement of nitric oxide concentration in CAPD dialysate,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 111–114, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  90. C. W. Yang, T. L. Hwang, W. CH et al., “Peritoneal nitric oxide is a marker of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2466–2471, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. K. C. Choi, T. K. Jeong, S. C. Lee, S. W. Kim, N. H. Kim, and K. Y. Lee, “Nitric oxide is a marker of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis, vol. 14, pp. 173–179, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  92. M. Duranay, F. M. Yilmaz, G. Yilmaz, H. Akay, H. Parpucu, and D. Yucel, “Association between nitric oxide and oxidative stress in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients peritonitis,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 654–660, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. Davenport, R. L. Fernando, and Z. Varghese, “Intraperitoneal nitric oxide production in patients treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Blood Purification, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 216–223, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. M. Bargman, K. E. Thorpe, D. N. Churchill, and Group CPDS, “Relative contribution of residual renal function and peritoneal clearance to adequacy of dialysis: a reanalysis of the CANUSA study,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 2158–2162, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  95. S. Ignace, D. Fouque, W. Arkouche, J. P. Steghens, and F. Guebre-Egziabher, “Preserved residual renal function is associated with lower oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis patients,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1685–1689, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. R. Furuya, H. Kumagai, M. Odamaki, M. Takahashi, A. Miyaki, and A. Hishida, “Impact of residual renal function on plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products and pentosidine in peritoneal dialysis patients,” Nephron Clinical Practice, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. c255–c261, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. H. Morinaga, H. Sugiyama, T. Inoue et al., “Effluent free radicals are associated with residual renal function and predict technique failure in peritoneal dialysis patients,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 453–461, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. L. Feldman, M. Shani, S. Efrati et al., “N-acetylcysteine improves residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 545–550, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. C. M. Shing, R. G. Fassett, J. M. Peake, and J. S. Coombes, “Effect of tocopherol on atherosclerosis, vascular function, and inflammation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with subtotal nephrectomy,” Cardiovascular Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 270–275, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Ando, T. Sanaka, and H. Nihei, “Eicosapentanoic acid reduces plasma levels of remnant lipoproteins and prevents in vivo peroxidation of LDL in dialysis patients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 2177–2184, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  101. K. N. Islam, D. O’Byrne, S. Devaraj, B. Palmer, S. M. Grundy, and I. Jialal, “Alpha-tocopherol supplementation decreases the oxidative susceptibility of LDL in renal failure patients on dialysis therapy,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 217–224, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. S. H. A. Diepeveen, G. W. H. E. Verhoeven, J. Van Der Palen et al., “Effects of atorvastatin and vitamin E on lipoproteins and oxidative stress in dialysis patients: a randomised-controlled trial,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 257, no. 5, pp. 438–445, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. F. A. Domenici, M. T. Vannucchi, A. A. Jordao Jr., M. S. Meirelles, and H. Vannucchi, “DNA oxidative damage in patients with dialysis treatment,” Renal Failure, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 689–694, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. D. O'Byrne, S. Devaraj, K. N. Islam et al., “Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, soluble cell adhesion molecules, and autoantibodies to oxidized-LDL in chronic renal failure patients on dialysis therapy,” Metabolism, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 207–215, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. G. Tsapas, I. Magoula, K. Paletas, and L. Concouris, “Effect of peritoneal dialysis on plasma levels of ascorbic acid,” Nephron, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. G. M. Shah, E. A. Ross, A. Sabo, M. Pichon, H. Bhagavan, and R. D. Reynolds, “Ascorbic acid supplements in patients receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 84–90, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. F. O. Finkelstein, P. Juergensen, S. Wang et al., “Hemoglobin and plasma vitamin C levels in patients on peritoneal dialysis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. O. I. Aruoma, B. Halliwell, B. M. Hoey, and J. Butler, “The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 593–597, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. H. Miyazaki, H. Matsuoka, H. Itabe et al., “Hemodialysis impairs endothelial function via oxidative stress: effects of vitamin E–coated dialyzer,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 1002–1006, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. M. Tepel, M. van der Giet, C. Schwarzfeld, U. Laufer, D. Liermann, and W. Zidek, “Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent–induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 3, pp. 180–184, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. R. G. Kilner, R. J. D'Souza, D. B. Oliveira, I. A. MacPhee, D. R. Turner, and J. B. Eastwood, “Acute renal failure from intoxication by Cortinarius orellanus: recovery using anti-oxidant therapy and steroids,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2779-2780, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. S. Holt, D. Goodier, R. Marley et al., “Improvement in renal function in hepatorenal syndrome with N-acetylcysteine,” Lancet, vol. 353, no. 9149, pp. 294-295, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. H. Trimarchi, M. R. Mongitore, P. Baglioni et al., “N-acetylcysteine reduces malondialdehyde levels in chronic hemodialysis patients – a pilot study,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 59, no. 06, pp. 441–446, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. V. Witko-Sarsat, V. Gausson, A. T. Nguyen et al., “AOPP-induced activation of human neutrophil and monocyte oxidative metabolism: a potential target for N-acetylcysteine treatment in dialysis patients,” Kidney International, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 82–91, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. Nakayama, G. Izumi, Y. Nemoto et al., “Suppression of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine generation by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 207–210, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  116. D. Bozkurt, E. Hur, B. Ulkuden et al., “Can N-acetylcysteine preserve peritoneal function and morphology in encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis?” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 29, Supplement 2, pp. S202–S205, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  117. M. M. Nascimento, M. E. Suliman, M. Silva et al., “Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine treatment on plasma inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in peritoneal dialysis patients: a placebo-controlled study,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 336–342, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. H. Noh, J. S. Kim, K. H. Han et al., “Oxidative stress during peritoneal dialysis: implications in functional and structural changes in the membrane,” Kidney International, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 2022–2028, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. V. Schwenger, C. Morath, A. Salava et al., “Damage to the peritoneal membrane by glucose degradation products is mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end-products,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 199–207, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. E. Y. Seo, H. Gwak, H. B. Lee, and H. Ha, “Stability of N-acetylcysteine in peritoneal dialysis solution,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 105–108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus