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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 4396467, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4396467
Research Article

Toxicity and Immunogenicity in Murine Melanoma following Exposure to Physical Plasma-Derived Oxidants

1ZIK plasmatis, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
2ZIK HIKE, Fleischmannstr. 42-44, 17489 Greifswald, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Sander Bekeschus; ed.dlawsfierg-pni@suhcsekeb.rednas

Received 3 March 2017; Accepted 4 May 2017; Published 27 June 2017

Academic Editor: Peeter Karihtala

Copyright © 2017 Sander Bekeschus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive and deadly disease. Therapeutic advance has been achieved by antitumor chemo- and radiotherapy. These modalities involve the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, affecting cellular viability, migration, and immunogenicity. Such species are also created by cold physical plasma, an ionized gas capable of redox modulating cells and tissues without thermal damage. Cold plasma has been suggested for anticancer therapy. Here, melanoma cell toxicity, motility, and immunogenicity of murine metastatic melanoma cells were investigated following plasma exposure in vitro. Cells were oxidized by plasma, leading to decreased metabolic activity and cell death. Moreover, plasma decelerated melanoma cell growth, viability, and cell cycling. This was accompanied by increased cellular stiffness and upregulation of zonula occludens 1 protein in the cell membrane. Importantly, expression levels of immunogenic cell surface molecules such as major histocompatibility complex I, calreticulin, and melanocortin receptor 1 were significantly increased in response to plasma. Finally, plasma treatment significantly decreased the release of vascular endothelial growth factor, a molecule with importance in angiogenesis. Altogether, these results suggest beneficial toxicity of cold plasma in murine melanomas with a concomitant immunogenicity of potential interest in oncology.