Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 5828056, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5828056
Review Article

Metallothionein in Brain Disorders

1Laboratorio de Neuropatología Experimental, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía MVS, Mexico City, Mexico
2Departamento de Neuroquímica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía MVS, Mexico City, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Marisela Méndez-Armenta; moc.liamtoh@atnemrazednemm

Received 26 April 2017; Revised 17 July 2017; Accepted 3 August 2017; Published 20 September 2017

Academic Editor: Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

Copyright © 2017 Daniel Juárez-Rebollar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Metallothioneins are a family of proteins which are able to bind metals intracellularly, so their main function is to regulate the cellular metabolism of essential metals. There are 4 major isoforms of MTs (I–IV), three of which have been localized in the central nervous system. MT-I and MT-II have been localized in the spinal cord and brain, mainly in astrocytes, whereas MT-III has been found mainly in neurons. MT-I and MT-II have been considered polyvalent proteins whose main function is to maintain cellular homeostasis of essential metals such as zinc and copper, but other functions have also been considered: detoxification of heavy metals, regulation of gene expression, processes of inflammation, and protection against free radicals generated by oxidative stress. On the other hand, the MT-III has been related in events of pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. Likewise, the participation of MTs in other neurological disorders has also been reported. This review shows recent evidence about the role of MT in the central nervous system and its possible role in neurodegenerative diseases as well as in brain disorders.