Table 2: Multiple linear regression model of dietary intake and PD progression. Predicted PD severity score, as measured by the PRO-PD, per unit increase in food intake frequency, intake measured on a 10-point scale: never, <1/month, 1/month, 2-3×/month, 1/week, 2–4×/week, 5-6×/week, 1/day, 2–4×/day, 5-6×/day. Adjusted for years since diagnosis, age, and gender. Adjusted for years since diagnosis, age, gender, and income.

Association between dietary practices and Parkinson’s disease progression
Food item (serving size)Mean change in PRO-PD score (SE) value (95% CI)Mean change in PRO-PD score (SE) value (95% CI)

Fresh vegetables (1/2 cup)−53.2 (7.9)<0.000 (−68.7 to −37.6)−48.9 (8.3)<0.000 (−64.7 to −33.1)
Fresh fruit (1/2 cup)−44.1 (8.5)<0.000 (−60.7 to −27.5)−40.7 (8.6)<0.000 (−57.5 to −23.9)
Nuts (1/4 cup or 2 tbsp spread)−38.5 (7.5)<0.000 (−53.2 to −23.7)−33.2 (7.6)<0.000 (−48.1 to −18.4)
Fish (4 oz)−37.1 (8.9)<0.000 (−54.6 to −19.5)−29.5 (9.1)0.001 (−47.3 to −11.6)
Olive oil (1 tsp)−34.1 (6.8)<0.000 (−47.4 to −20.8)−31.4 (6.8)<0.000 (−44.7 to −18.1)
Wine (6 oz)−23.6 (5.3)<0.000 (−34.1 to −13.1)−14.6 (5.6)0.009 (−25.5 to −3.7)
Turkey (4 oz)−20.2 (18.7)0.281 (−57.1 to 16.7)−10.8 (19.2)0.573 (−48.7 to 27)
Coconut oil (1 tsp)−18.6 (5.5)0.001 (−29.3 to −7.8)−20.2 (5.5)<0.000 (−31 to −9.4)
Fresh herbs (1 tsp)−14.9 (6.4)0.02 (−27.4 to −2.4)−8.9 (6.5)0.169 (−21.7 to 3.8)
Spices (1/4 tsp)−14.2 (6.4)0.027 (−26.7 to −1.6)−13.4 (6.4)0.037 (−26 to −0.8)
Eggs (1 egg)−9.5 (8.2)0.251 (−25.6 to 6.7)−9.7 (8.3)0.241 (−26 to 6.5)
Bread (1 slice)−7.7 (6.8)0.26 (−21.2 to 5.7)−6.9 (6.9)0.314 (−20.4 to 6.6)
Beans (1/2 cup)−6.3 (8.6)0.466 (−23.3 to 10.7)−5.4 (8.8)0.54 (−22.6 to 11.8)
Butter (1 tsp)−4 (5.9)0.494 (−15.6 to 7.5)−3.8 (6)0.522 (−15.5 to 7.9)
Oatmeal (1 cup)−3.2 (6.5)0.624 (−15.9 to 9.5)−4.4 (6.6)0.501 (−17.3 to 8.5)
Liquor (1 oz)−2.8 (7.7)0.717 (−17.8 to 12.3)3.6 (7.7)0.47 (−11.5 to 18.7)
Green tea (1 cup)−2.3 (5.7)0.68 (−13.5 to 8.8)1.6 (5.7)0.779 (−9.6 to 12.7)
Juice (8 oz)−2.3 (5.8)0.687 (−13.8 to 9.1)−1.4 (5.9)0.811 (−12.9 to 10.1)
Frozen fruit (1/2 cup)−1.9 (6.1)0.757 (−13.8 to 10)−2.2 (6.1)0.714 (−14.1 to 9.7)
Cream (1/4 cup)−0.5 (7.4)0.942 (−15.2 to 14.1)−0.3 (7.4)0.971 (−14.7 to 14.2)
Coffee (8 oz)−0.1 (4.4)0.983 (−8.8 to 8.6)4.3 (4.5)0.342 (−4.5 to 13.1)
Soy (3 oz)0.4 (7.9)0.962 (−15.2 to 16)2.3 (8)0.77 (−13.4 to 18.1)
Safflower oil (1 tsp)0.7 (6.9)0.922 (−12.8 to 14.2)6.8 (6.9)0.325 (−6.8 to 20.5)
Beer (12 oz)1.1 (7.6)0.88 (−13.7 to 16)2 (7.5)0.789 (−12.8 to 16.8)
Chicken (4 oz)3.3 (9.7)0.34 (−15.6 to 22.3)13.4 (9.8)0.171 (−5.8 to 32.5)
Milk (1 cup) (mammalian, for example, cow)5.8 (4.8)0.226 (−3.6 to 15.2)5.1 (4.8)0.291 (−4.4 to 14.5)
Pork (4 oz)6.1 (8.6)0.482 (−10.8 to 22.9)7 (8.7)0.42 (−10 to 24)
Black tea (1 cup)8.6 (5.6)0.121 (−2.3 to 19.5)8.4 (5.6)0.131 (−2.5 to 19.3)
Eat food from a can9.6 (8.1)0.234 (−6.2 to 25.4)6.1 (8.1)0.449 (−9.7 to 22)
Pasta (1 cup)10.1 (9.3)0.28 (−8.2 to 28.4)9.2 (9.4)0.326 (−9.2 to 27.6)
Frozen vegetables (1/2 cup)11 (6.9)0.11 (−2.5 to 24.4)10.3 (6.9)0.137 (−3.3 to 23.9)
Cheese (1 slice, 1/2 oz, 1 tbsp)11.7 (6.9)0.091 (−1.9 to 25.3)15.5 (6.9)0.026 (1.9 to 29.1)
Yogurt (3/4 cup)13.5 (7.5)0.073 (−1.3 to 28.3)15.2 (7.6)0.046 (0.2 to 30.1)
Ice cream (1/2 cup)13.8 (7.4)0.064 (−0.8 to 28.3)18.3 (7.5)0.015 (3.6 to 32.9)
Soda (12 oz)15.4 (7.8)0.049 (0.03 to 30.7)15.2 (7.9)0.054 (−0.3 to 30.6)
Beef (4 oz)16.2 (8.3)0.051 (−0.1 to 32.4)21.8 (8.3)0.009 (5.5 to 38.1)
Fried food (4 oz)19.5 (8.8)0.027 (2.2 to 36.8)23 (8.9)0.009 (5.6 to 40.4)
Canned vegetables (1/2 cup)19.9 (7)0.005 (6.1 to 33.6)18.3 (7)0.009 (4.5 to 32.1)
Diet soda (12 oz)20.7 (6.1)0.001 (8.7 to 32.8)23.6 (6.1)<0.000 (11.6 to 35.6)
Canned fruit (1/2 cup)36.1 (7.9)<0.000 (20.5 to 51.6)32 (7.9)<0.000 (16.5 to 47.6)