Table 3: Logistic regression model of nutritional supplements and PD progression. Predicted PD severity score, as measured by the PRO-PD, based on the positive report of consistently using of supplements over the previous 6 months. Adjusted for years since diagnosis, age, and gender. Adjusted for years since diagnosis, age, gender, and income.

Association between dietary supplements & risk of Parkinson’s disease progression
Nutritional supplementnMean change in PRO-PD score (SE) value (95% CI)Mean change in PRO-PD score (SE) value (95% CI)

Inosine13−181.1 (125.6)0.15 (−427.5 to 65.3)−107.1 (122.9)0.384 (−348.4 to 134.2)
Glutathione, oral43−126.1 (69)0.068 (−261.6 to 9.3)−126.7 (70)0.07 (−263.9 to 10.5)
DHEA47−87.6 (70.8)0.216 (−226.6 to 51.4)−72.2 (70.9)0.309 (−211.3 to 67)
Lithium, low dose21−84.9 (100.2)0.397 (−281.6 to 111.8)−118.9 (100.4)0.237 (−315.9 to 78.1)
Low-dose naltrexone14−76.1 (120.9)0.529 (−313.4 to 161.2)−87.8 (118)0.457 (−319.3 to 143.8)
CoQ10286−70.4 (31.5)0.026 (−132.2 to −8.6)−46.6 (31.6)0.141 (−108.7 to 15.4)
Fish oil376−69.5 (29.5)0.019 (−127.4 to −11.6)−57.7 (29.6)0.052 (−115.7 to 0.4)
Quercetin21−50.7 (105.9)0.632 (−258.5 to 157.1)−60.5 (106.4)0.569 (−269.3 to 148.2)
Turmeric/curcumin197−47.3 (35.6)0.186 (−117.3 to 22.8)−49.5 (35.9)0.168 (−120 to 20.9)
Gingko biloba30−47.2 (83.2)0.57 (−210.5 to 116)−61.1 (81.2)0452 (−220.5 to 98.2)
Coconut oil190−35.8 (36.4)0.324 (−107.2 to 35.5)−52.7 (36.4)0.147 (−124.1 to 18.6)
Resveratrol43−28.5 (70.7)0.687 (−167.3 to 110.3)−18.7 (72.7)0.797 (−161.4 to 124)
Vitamin D623−26.1 (29)0.368 (−83 to 30.8)−3.6 (29.2)0.902 (−60.9 to 53.7)
Alpha-lipoic acid79−19.1 (53.4)0.72 (−123.9 to 85.7)0.05 (54.4)0.999 (−106.7 to 106.7)
5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF)27−17.1 (91.4)0.852 (−196.4 to 162.2)−25.1 (95.6)0.793 (−212.7 to 162.5)
Probiotics249−12.3 (32.7)0.708 (−76.5 to 52)−12.4 (32.9)0.706 (−77 to 52)
NADH14−9.7 (120.8)0.936 (−246.7 to 227.3)−25.2 (122.6)0.837 (−265.7 to 215.4)
Multivitamin/mineral342−7.8 (30.2)0.795 (−67.1 to 51.4)9.9 (30.3)0.744 (−49.6 to 69.5)
Calcium324−6.2 (32.2)0.847 (−69.4 to 57)12.5 (32.6)0.701 (−51.4 to 76.4)
B6, B12, folic acid, betaine combination883.4 (49.7)0.946 (−94.2 to 101)11.1 (48.9)0.82 (−84.9 to 107.1)
Vitamin C3274.2 (30.6)0.891 (−55.9 to 64.3)−3.8 (31)0.902 (−64.6 to 56.9)
N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC)5912.8 (60.1)0.831 (−105 to 130.7)26.9 (60.8)0.658 (−92.4 to 146.1)
Vitamin B12 (methyl-B12/cyano-B12)35326.7 (29.8)0.37 (−31.8 to 85.3)43 (29.8)0.15 (−15.6 to 101.6)
Rubidium234.2 (306)0.911 (−566.4 to 634.7)93.1 (298.5)0.755 (−492.7 to 678.8)
Estrogen5140 (67.4)0.553 (−92.2 to 172.3)15.2 (69.6)0.827 (−121.4 to 151.8)
Glutathione, intranasal2462.9 (95.5)0.51 (−124.5 to 250.4)55.6 (93.2)0.551 (−127.3 to 238.5)
Mucuna3367 (81.7)0.412 (−93.3 to 227.2)21.8 (80)0.785 (−135.1 to 178.6)
Fava beans17122 (109)0.263 (−92 to 336)87.8 (110.1)0.425 (−128.2 to 303.8)
Melatonin148139.3 (40.5)0.001 (59.8 to 218.8)134.8 (40.2)0.001 (56 to 213.6)
Iron (Fe)57146.4 (63.9)0.022 (21 to 271.9)179.7 (64.3)0.005 (53.6 to 305.9)