Table 1: Fluorescent probes used for the measurements of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by flow cytometry.

Probe (localization)ROS/RNSFluorescenceLeukocytesPlateletsLimitations and confoundings

DCFH-DA (intracellular)HO
ONOO
ROO
NO2
Indirect
H2O2
↑ green (DCF)YesYesHemolysis
Self-propagation of DCF radicals
MDR substrates or inducers
Esterase inhibitors
Plasma esterase in whole blood or PRP
EDTA and citrate
Antioxidants
DAF-2 DA/DAF-FM DA (intracellular)NO↑ green (DAF-Ts)YesNoMDR substrates or inducers
Esterase inhibitors
Plasma esterase in whole blood
DHR123 (intracellular)HClO
H2O2
ONOO
↑ green (Rho123)YesNoSelf-propagation of DHR radicals
MDR substrates or inducers
Antioxidants
HE (intracellular)O2•−↑ red (ethidium)YesNoIntercalating agents
C11-BODIPY581/591 (membrane)HO
ROO
Shift from red to greenYesYesHemolysis
Antioxidants

C11-BODIPY581/591: 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoic acid; DAF-2 DA: 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate; DAF-FM DA: 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate; DAF-Ts: triazolofluoresceins; DCF: 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein; DCFH-DA: dihydrochlorofluorescein diacetate; DHR123: dihydrorhodamine 123; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; HClO: hypochlorous acid; HE: hydroethidine; MDR: multidrug resistance; NO: nitrogen monoxide; NO2: nitrogen dioxide; O2•−: superoxide radical; HO: hydroxyl radical; ONOO: peroxynitrite; PRP: platelet-rich plasma; Rho123: rhodamine 123; ROO: peroxyl radicals.